Tuesday, April 23, 2024
Nature's Pharmacy

16 Medicinal Health Benefits Of Lycium chinense (Chinese wolfberry)

Lycium chinense, commonly known as Chinese wolfberry or Chinese boxthorn, is a deciduous shrub belonging to the Solanaceae family. This perennial plant is native to many regions of Asia, including China and parts of Japan and Korea. It is also cultivated in various other parts of the world for its medicinal and culinary uses. Here are ten key botanical characteristics and features of Lycium chinense:

The Botanical Description of Lycium chinense

1. Growth Habit: Lycium chinense is a woody shrub that can reach a height of 2 to 3 meters (6.5 to 10 feet). It has an upright growth habit with many branches.

2. Leaves: The leaves of Lycium chinense are oblong and typically 2 to 4 centimeters in length. They are simple, entire, and arranged alternately on the branches. The leaves are typically dark green and may appear somewhat leathery.

3. Flowers: The shrub produces small, tubular, and bell-shaped flowers. These flowers can be white or light lavender and are typically 6 to 12 millimeters in length. They are arranged in clusters along the branches.

4. Fruits: The most well-known part of Lycium chinense is its red to orange-red fruits, often referred to as wolfberries or goji berries. These are small, oval-shaped berries that are around 1 to 2 centimeters in length.

5. Roots: The roots of Lycium chinense are extensive and can spread widely underground. They have a fibrous nature and play a crucial role in nutrient uptake.

6. Bark: The bark of the shrub is typically gray-brown in color and may have a somewhat rough texture. It is an important protective layer for the plant.

7. Thorns: Some varieties of Lycium chinense may have thorns on their branches, while others are thornless. The presence of thorns can vary based on the specific cultivar.

8. Berries: The bright red or orange-red berries are the most sought-after part of the plant. They have a sweet and slightly tangy taste, making them a popular addition to various dishes and herbal preparations.

9. Pollination: Lycium chinense flowers are pollinated by insects, and the shrub relies on these pollinators to set fruit.

10. Growing Conditions: Lycium chinense is adaptable to a range of soil types but thrives in well-draining, sandy or loamy soils. It prefers full sun but can tolerate partial shade. The plant is quite drought-tolerant once established.

Lycium chinense’s botanical features make it a distinctive and recognizable shrub. Its red berries are especially noteworthy for their use in traditional medicine and as a superfood in various culinary applications. The plant’s adaptability to different climates and soils has made it a popular choice for cultivation in many regions around the world.

The Geographic Distribution of Lycium chinense

Lycium chinense, commonly known as Chinese wolfberry or Chinese boxthorn, is native to a broad geographical range in Asia, with a history of use in traditional medicine and culinary traditions. Understanding its distribution can provide insight into the areas where this plant has played a significant role in the lives of local communities. Here, we explore the regions where Lycium chinense is naturally found and cultivated:

1. China: Lycium chinense is native to China, where it has a long history of traditional use. It is found in various provinces, including Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia. Chinese wolfberries have been a part of Chinese herbal medicine for centuries.

2. Japan: In Japan, Lycium chinense is found in regions such as Kyushu, Shikoku, and the southern part of Honshu. It is cultivated and used in traditional Japanese cuisine.

3. Korea: Lycium chinense is also native to parts of Korea, where it is known as “gugija” and used in traditional dishes and beverages.

4. Other Asian Regions: Lycium chinense can be found in other parts of Asia, including Tibet, Bhutan, and Nepal. In these regions, it is valued for its medicinal properties.

5. Cultivation Worldwide: Due to its popularity in traditional medicine and as a superfood, Lycium chinense is cultivated in various parts of the world. It is grown in North America, Europe, and other regions with suitable climates.

6. Global Trade: Chinese wolfberries, often referred to as goji berries, are traded internationally and are a common ingredient in health foods, supplements, and traditional medicines in many countries.

The distribution of Lycium chinense reflects its adaptability to different climates and its value in various cultural and culinary traditions. It is not limited to its native regions and has gained global recognition for its health benefits and culinary uses.

The Chemical Composition of Lycium chinense

Lycium chinense, commonly known as Chinese wolfberry or Chinese boxthorn, is renowned for its nutritional richness and unique chemical composition. These berries are packed with various bioactive compounds that contribute to their health benefits. Here, we explore the chemical constituents that make Lycium chinense a valuable medicinal plant and superfood:

1. Antioxidants: Lycium chinense is rich in antioxidants, including carotenoids (beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, and lutein), polyphenols (quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol), and vitamins C and E. These antioxidants help combat oxidative stress and protect cells from damage.

2. Amino Acids: Chinese wolfberries contain essential and non-essential amino acids, including arginine, leucine, and proline. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and play a vital role in various physiological processes.

3. Flavonoids: Flavonoids are a group of bioactive compounds found in Lycium chinense. They have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and potential anticancer properties. Quercetin is a well-known flavonoid present in these berries.

4. Polysaccharides: Lycium chinense contains polysaccharides, which are long-chain carbohydrates with immune-boosting properties. These polysaccharides are believed to contribute to the plant’s adaptogenic effects.

5. Vitamins and Minerals: Chinese wolfberries are a good source of vitamins and minerals, including vitamin C, vitamin A, iron, and potassium. These nutrients are essential for overall health and well-being.

6. Betaine: Lycium chinense contains betaine, a compound that supports liver function and helps protect against fatty liver disease.

7. Fiber: The berries are a good source of dietary fiber, which supports digestive health and may aid in weight management.

8. Terpenoids: Terpenoids are bioactive compounds found in Lycium chinense that contribute to its potential anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties.

9. Beta-Sitosterol: This plant sterol is found in Chinese wolfberries and has potential cholesterol-lowering effects, making it beneficial for heart health.

10. Betaine Nitrate: This compound is thought to have positive effects on cardiovascular health, as it may help lower blood pressure.

The diverse chemical composition of Lycium chinense contributes to its reputation as a superfood and a valuable component of traditional medicine. Its rich antioxidant content, amino acids, and essential nutrients make it a versatile and health-promoting plant.

The Harvesting and Processing of Lycium chinense

Lycium chinense, commonly known as Chinese wolfberry or Chinese boxthorn, has a history of traditional use in medicine and cuisine. Harvesting and processing these berries is a careful and meticulous process to ensure their quality and preservation of beneficial compounds. Here, we delve into the steps involved in the harvesting and processing of Lycium chinense:

1. Harvesting: The first step in obtaining Lycium chinense berries is the careful harvesting of the ripe fruit. This is typically done by hand to prevent damage to the delicate berries. Harvesting is usually carried out in late summer to early autumn when the berries are at their peak ripeness.

2. Sun-Drying: After harvesting, the berries are traditionally spread out in a single layer and allowed to sun-dry. This drying process helps reduce the water content of the berries and enhances their shelf life. Sun-drying is a crucial step in preserving the berries and maintaining their nutritional value.

3. Mechanical Drying: In modern processing facilities, mechanical drying methods are often employed to speed up the drying process. This can involve using temperature-controlled drying ovens or dehydrators to remove moisture from the berries.

4. Sorting and Cleaning: Once dried, the berries go through a sorting and cleaning process. This involves removing any debris, leaves, or damaged berries to ensure that only high-quality fruit is included in the final product.

5. Packaging: The dried Lycium chinense berries are then carefully packaged to maintain their freshness and prevent exposure to moisture or contaminants. They are typically sold in a dried form, making them easy to store and use in various applications.

6. Export and Distribution: Chinese wolfberries, often referred to as goji berries, are exported and distributed globally. They are a sought-after superfood and are used in traditional medicine, health foods, and dietary supplements.

7. Traditional Uses: In traditional Chinese medicine, Lycium chinense has been used in various herbal preparations and teas. It is believed to have numerous health benefits, and its use dates back centuries.

8. Culinary Uses: Lycium chinense berries are incorporated into a wide range of culinary dishes and beverages. They can be used in soups, stews, teas, smoothies, and as a topping for salads and yogurt.

9. Medicinal Preparations: Chinese wolfberries are used in traditional medicine for their potential health benefits. They are believed to have adaptogenic properties and are used to promote overall well-being.

The harvesting and processing of Lycium chinense berries are crucial to preserving their nutritional value and making them available for various applications. Whether consumed in traditional medicine, cuisine, or health products, these berries have a long history of use for their potential health-promoting properties.

Read Also: 23 Medicinal Health Benefits Of Leonotis nepetifolia (Lion’s ear)

The Medicinal Health Benefits Of Lycium chinense (Chinese Boxthorn)

16 Medicinal Health Benefits Of Lycium chinense (Chinese wolfberry)

Lycium chinense, known as Chinese boxthorn or Chinese wolfberry, is a plant with a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. Its berries, often referred to as goji berries, are renowned for their potential health benefits. Here, we explore the medicinal properties and health benefits associated with Lycium chinense:

1. Antioxidant Properties: Lycium chinense berries are rich in antioxidants, including carotenoids and polyphenols. These antioxidants help combat oxidative stress and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

2. Immune System Support: Regular consumption of Lycium chinense is believed to enhance the immune system’s function. It may help the body defend against infections and illnesses.

3. Vision Support: The carotenoids in Chinese wolfberries, such as zeaxanthin and lutein, are beneficial for eye health. They help protect the eyes from age-related conditions like macular degeneration.

4. Skin Health: Some people use Lycium chinense to promote healthy and radiant skin. The antioxidants in the berries may help combat skin aging and maintain a youthful appearance.

5. Liver Protection: Lycium chinense is thought to support liver health and protect against liver damage. It may aid in the detoxification process.

6. Heart Health: Regular consumption of Chinese wolfberries may help lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels, contributing to heart health.

7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Lycium chinense has anti-inflammatory properties, which may help alleviate symptoms of inflammatory conditions.

8. Adaptogenic Effects: Chinese boxthorn is considered an adaptogen, which means it may help the body adapt to stress and maintain balance.

9. Improved Sleep: Some individuals use Lycium chinense to improve sleep quality and manage insomnia.

10. Cognitive Function: The antioxidants in the berries are believed to support cognitive function and may help prevent cognitive decline.

11. Blood Sugar Control: Lycium chinense may help regulate blood sugar levels, making it beneficial for individuals with diabetes.

12. Weight Management: The fiber content of Chinese wolfberries can contribute to a feeling of fullness, which may aid in weight management.

13. Anticancer Potential: Some studies suggest that the compounds in Lycium chinense have potential anticancer properties. However, more research is needed in this area.

14. Hormonal Balance: In traditional Chinese medicine, Lycium chinense is used to balance hormones and support overall well-being.

15. Digestive Health: The fiber in Chinese wolfberries can promote healthy digestion and regular bowel movements.

16. Anti-Aging: Some people use Lycium chinense to slow down the aging process and promote longevity.

It’s important to note that while Lycium chinense has a long history of use in traditional medicine, scientific research is ongoing to fully understand its potential health benefits. As with any herbal remedy, it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional before using it for medicinal purposes, especially if you have any underlying health conditions or are taking medications.

The Methods of Usage to Achieve the Provided Health Benefits Of Lycium chinense (Chinese Boxthorn)

Lycium chinense, commonly known as Chinese boxthorn or Chinese wolfberry, is valued for its potential health benefits. To harness the medicinal properties of Lycium chinense, various methods of usage have been developed over the years. Here, we explore how to incorporate Chinese wolfberries into your daily routine to achieve the provided health benefits:

1. Direct Consumption: One of the simplest ways to enjoy the health benefits of Lycium chinense is by eating the dried berries directly. They can be consumed as a nutritious snack, similar to raisins or other dried fruits. A daily handful of Chinese wolfberries can provide a regular dose of antioxidants and nutrients.

2. Herbal Teas: Lycium chinense berries can be steeped in hot water to make a nourishing herbal tea. Simply add a few berries to a cup of hot water, let them steep for a few minutes, and then enjoy. Chinese wolfberry tea is a popular choice for those looking to boost their overall well-being.

3. Smoothies: Blend Chinese wolfberries into your morning smoothie to add a burst of nutrition and a slightly sweet and tangy flavor. This is a convenient way to incorporate the berries into your daily routine.

4. Culinary Dishes: Lycium chinense berries are versatile and can be used in a variety of culinary dishes. They are often added to soups, stews, and salads for an extra layer of flavor and nutrition.

5. Trail Mix: Create your own trail mix by combining Chinese wolfberries with nuts, seeds, and other dried fruits. This is a convenient and energy-boosting snack for outdoor activities.

6. Tinctures and Extracts: Lycium chinense can be prepared as a tincture or liquid extract. These concentrated forms are often used for medicinal purposes and can be added to water or other beverages.

7. Capsules and Supplements: Chinese wolfberry supplements, including capsules and powders, are available for those who prefer a more convenient and controlled way to consume Lycium chinense.

8. Traditional Herbal Formulations: In traditional Chinese medicine, Lycium chinense is often used in herbal formulations to address specific health concerns. These formulations may include a combination of herbs tailored to individual needs.

9. Face Masks and Skincare: Some individuals use Lycium chinense as an ingredient in DIY face masks or skincare products to promote healthy skin and combat signs of aging.

10. Infused Water: Add Chinese wolfberries to a pitcher of water and let them infuse. This creates a refreshing and nutritious drink that you can enjoy throughout the day.

11. Soups and Broths: Chinese wolfberries are commonly used in traditional Chinese soups and broths to enhance flavor and nutritional content.

12. Desserts: Incorporate Lycium chinense into desserts such as puddings, cakes, and pastries for a unique and healthy twist.

It’s important to consume Lycium chinense in moderation, as excessive intake may lead to digestive discomfort. Additionally, if you are using it for medicinal purposes, it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the appropriate dosage for your specific health needs.

The Side Effects Of Using Lycium chinense Medicinal Plant

Lycium chinense, commonly known as Chinese boxthorn or Chinese wolfberry, is generally considered safe for consumption when used in moderate amounts for culinary and medicinal purposes. However, like many herbs and natural remedies, there are potential side effects and considerations to keep in mind:

1. Allergic Reactions: While rare, some individuals may be allergic to Lycium chinense berries. If you experience symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, or difficulty breathing, discontinue use and seek medical attention.

2. Digestive Issues: Consuming excessive amounts of Chinese wolfberries may lead to digestive discomfort

, including diarrhea or abdominal pain. It’s important to consume them in moderation.

3. Interaction with Medications: If you are taking medications, especially blood thinners or drugs that affect blood sugar levels, consult with a healthcare professional before incorporating Lycium chinense into your diet. The berries may interact with certain medications.

4. Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: While Chinese wolfberries are generally considered safe, pregnant and breastfeeding individuals should exercise caution and consult with a healthcare provider before using them for medicinal purposes.

5. Blood Pressure: Lycium chinense may have a blood-pressure-lowering effect. If you have low blood pressure or are already taking medication to lower blood pressure, consult with a healthcare professional before using these berries regularly.

6. Gastrointestinal Disorders: If you have a history of gastrointestinal disorders or conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), be mindful of your body’s response to Lycium chinense. Some individuals with sensitive digestive systems may experience discomfort.

7. Blood Sugar Control: Chinese wolfberries may help regulate blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes or are taking medication for blood sugar control, monitor your levels closely and consult with a healthcare professional to adjust your medication if necessary.

8. Interactions with Other Herbs and Supplements: If you are taking other herbal remedies or dietary supplements, be aware of potential interactions. Some combinations may enhance or interfere with the effects of Lycium chinense.

9. Quality of Products: The quality of Lycium chinense products can vary. When purchasing dried berries, teas, supplements, or extracts, choose reputable brands to ensure product safety and quality.

It’s important to emphasize that Lycium chinense is generally safe for most individuals when used in moderation and as part of a balanced diet. However, individual responses to herbal remedies can vary, so it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional, especially if you have specific health concerns or are taking medications.

Read Also: 23 Medicinal Health Benefits Of Dichroa febrifuga (Blue Evergreen Hydrangea)

The Scientific Research and Studies of Lycium chinense (Chinese Boxthorn)

16 Medicinal Health Benefits Of Lycium chinense (Chinese wolfberry)

Lycium chinense, commonly known as Chinese boxthorn or Chinese wolfberry, has attracted scientific interest due to its potential health benefits and traditional uses in Chinese medicine. Researchers have conducted studies to explore the plant’s medicinal properties, chemical composition, and effects on various aspects of health. Here, we delve into some of the scientific research and studies related to Lycium chinense:

1. Antioxidant Activity: Numerous studies have confirmed the antioxidant properties of Lycium chinense. These antioxidants, such as carotenoids and polyphenols, help protect cells from oxidative damage, reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

2. Eye Health: Research has highlighted the potential of Lycium chinense, specifically its carotenoid content, to benefit eye health. Zeaxanthin and lutein, present in Chinese wolfberries, have been associated with a reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration.

3. Immune Modulation: Studies suggest that Lycium chinense may modulate the immune system, enhancing its ability to defend against infections and diseases. This is attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds like polysaccharides.

4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Some research has explored the anti-inflammatory properties of Lycium chinense. These effects may be useful in managing conditions characterized by chronic inflammation.

5. Cognitive Function: The antioxidant-rich composition of Chinese wolfberries has led to investigations into their potential to support cognitive function and protect against cognitive decline.

6. Heart Health: Several studies have examined the effects of Lycium chinense on heart health. The plant’s compounds may help lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

7. Anticancer Potential: While research is in the early stages, some studies have suggested that the compounds in Lycium chinense may have potential anticancer properties. These effects are thought to be due to the presence of terpenoids and flavonoids.

8. Liver Protection: Lycium chinense has been studied for its potential to protect the liver from damage. It may support liver function and aid in detoxification processes.

9. Blood Sugar Control: Some investigations have explored the effects of Chinese wolfberries on blood sugar regulation. The plant may have a role in managing blood sugar levels, making it potentially beneficial for individuals with diabetes.

10. Skin Health: The antioxidants in Lycium chinense have been associated with benefits for skin health. They help combat skin aging and promote a youthful appearance.

It’s important to note that while these studies provide promising insights into the potential health benefits of Lycium chinense, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms and effects. As with any herbal remedy, it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional before using it for medicinal purposes, especially if you have specific health concerns or are taking medications.

The Safety Precautions and Recommendations In Using Lycium chinense (Chinese Boxthorn) Medicinal Plant

While Lycium chinense, commonly known as Chinese boxthorn or Chinese wolfberry, is generally safe for consumption and has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine, there are safety precautions and recommendations to keep in mind when using this medicinal plant:

1. Allergic Reactions: Although rare, some individuals may be allergic to Lycium chinense berries. If you are consuming them for the first time, start with a small amount and monitor for any signs of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, or difficulty breathing.

2. Moderation: As with any herbal remedy, it’s important to consume Lycium chinense in moderation. Excessive intake may lead to digestive discomfort, including diarrhea or abdominal pain. A handful of dried berries a day is generally considered a safe amount.

3. Consultation with Healthcare Professionals: If you are pregnant, breastfeeding, have specific health concerns, or are taking medications, it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional before using Lycium chinense for medicinal purposes. They can provide guidance on safe usage and potential interactions.

4. Blood Pressure and Blood Sugar Monitoring: If you have low blood pressure, are already taking medication to lower blood pressure, or have diabetes, monitor your blood pressure and blood sugar levels closely when incorporating Chinese wolfberries into your diet. Adjust your medication as necessary in consultation with a healthcare provider.

5. Quality of Products: When purchasing Lycium chinense products, such as dried berries, teas, supplements, or extracts, choose reputable brands to ensure product safety and quality. Quality products are less likely to contain contaminants or impurities.

6. Individual Tolerance: People

with sensitive digestive systems or a history of gastrointestinal disorders should be aware of their body’s response to Lycium chinense. If you experience digestive discomfort, reduce your intake or discontinue use.

7. Combining with Other Herbs and Supplements: If you are taking other herbal remedies or dietary supplements, be aware of potential interactions. Some combinations may enhance or interfere with the effects of Lycium chinense.

8. Skin Reactions: When using Lycium chinense in skincare products or face masks, perform a patch test on a small area of skin to ensure you do not experience any adverse reactions, especially if you have sensitive skin.

9. Balanced Diet: While Lycium chinense offers potential health benefits, it should be part of a balanced and varied diet. Relying solely on any single food or supplement is not advisable for overall nutrition.

10. Children and Elderly: Exercise caution when giving Lycium chinense to children and the elderly. Consult with healthcare professionals to determine appropriate dosages and ensure safety.

It’s important to emphasize that Lycium chinense is generally safe for most individuals when used in moderation and as part of a balanced diet. However, individual responses to herbal remedies can vary, so it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional, especially if you have specific health concerns or are taking medications. Additionally, following these safety precautions and recommendations will help ensure the safe use of Chinese wolfberries.

FAQs About Lycium chinense (Chinese Boxthorn) Medicinal Plant

Here are some frequently asked questions about Lycium chinense, commonly known as Chinese boxthorn or Chinese wolfberry, along with detailed answers:

1. What is Lycium chinense?

Lycium chinense is a plant native to Asia and is valued for its berries, often referred to as goji berries. It has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine and is known for its potential health benefits.

2. What are the common names for Lycium chinense?

Lycium chinense is commonly known as Chinese boxthorn, Chinese wolfberry, and goji berry.

3. What does Lycium chinense look like?

Lycium chinense is a deciduous shrub with long, flexible branches. The leaves are lance-shaped and green, and it produces small, trumpet-shaped purple or white flowers. The red or orange berries are small and oblong.

4. What are the potential health benefits of Lycium chinense?

Lycium chinense is associated with several potential health benefits, including antioxidant properties, immune system support, vision support, skin health, liver protection, heart health, anti-inflammatory effects, adaptogenic effects, improved sleep, cognitive function support, blood sugar control, weight management, and more.

5. How can I incorporate Lycium chinense into my daily routine?

There are various ways to use Lycium chinense, including direct consumption as a snack, brewing herbal teas, adding them to smoothies, incorporating them into culinary dishes, creating trail mix, preparing tinctures or extracts, taking capsules or supplements, using them in face masks and skincare, infusing water, adding them to soups and broths, and using them in desserts.

6. Are there any side effects associated with Lycium chinense?

While Lycium chinense is generally safe for consumption, excessive intake may lead to digestive discomfort. Some individuals may be allergic to the berries. It’s important to consult with a healthcare professional, especially if you have specific health concerns or are taking medications.

7. Can I use Lycium chinense during pregnancy or while breastfeeding?

Pregnant and breastfeeding individuals should exercise caution and consult with a healthcare provider before using Lycium chinense for medicinal purposes. While it is generally considered safe, it’s advisable to seek professional guidance.

8. Are there any interactions with medications to be aware of?

Lycium chinense may interact with certain medications, such as blood thinners or drugs that affect blood sugar levels. If you are taking medications, consult with a healthcare professional before incorporating Chinese wolfberries into your diet.

9. Is there scientific research supporting the health benefits of Lycium chinense?

Yes, there is scientific research that supports some of the health benefits of Lycium chinense, including its antioxidant activity, eye health benefits, immune modulation, anti-inflammatory effects, heart health effects, potential anticancer properties, cognitive function support, and liver protection. However, more research is needed in some areas.

Read Also: How to Get Started with Sugar Cane Minecraft

Agric4Profits

Benadine Nonye is an agricultural consultant and a writer with over 12 years of professional experience in the agriculture industry. - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education - PhD Student in Agricultural Economics and Environmental Policy... Visit My Websites On: 1. Agric4Profits.com - Your Comprehensive Practical Agricultural Knowledge and Farmer’s Guide Website! 2. WealthinWastes.com - For Effective Environmental Management through Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices! Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4Profits TV and WealthInWastes TV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

error

Enjoy this post? Please spread the word :)

0
YOUR CART
  • No products in the cart.