Saturday, July 20, 2024

All you need to know about Soybean Farming Process

Soybeans, which are also known as soya beans, are a legume species that is become one of the most widely consumed food all over the world. It is one of exceptionally nutritive food that is very rich in all essential proteins required for a human body. Because of this soya bean are extremely useful for human health, and also are easy to cultivate over a wide variety of soil.

Scientifically, It’s botanical name is “Glycine max“ and they are classified as an oil seed, rather than a pulse, all like most legumes

In the market, there is a great demand for soy and Soybean products like Tofu, soy yogurt, Soybean Oil, soy ice cream, soy chunks (meal maker), whipped soy topping, Soy Milk, Yuba, soy nuts, soy cheese, Soy Sauces, soy grits, and soy nut butter. And besides this, soybeans are also used as meat alternative as  Soya beans are rich in Proteins, which is normally found in chicken, red meat, fish, and eggs.

All over the worlds, soybeans are produced largely by the United States and South America. But actually, they are native of East Asia.

So, before moving ahead to soybean farming, let us learn health benefits of using soybean.

Benefits of Soybeans

Among all of the legumes, Soya beans are an exceptionally nutritive food which is rich in all essential proteins and minerals required for a human body to be a healthy. Soya beans are also listed as one of healthiest food.

So, here below is a list of some health benefits of soya beans. Learn them and try it!!

  1. Soya beans are rich in Proteins, which is normally found in chicken, red meat, fish, and eggs.
  2. Soya bean also contains Isoflavones which is helpful in overcoming from the risk of heart disease, various cancer, and osteoporosis.
  3. Soya beans are also rich in many in minerals like magnesium, iron, calcium and also the selenium.
  4. Soya beans are helpful in weight gain as they are a good reservoir of proteins and fibers. Eat in larger quantity.
  5. Soya beans are low in fat content and have no cholesterol.
  6. Soya bean also contains necessary heart-friendly omega-3 fats.
  7. Soya beans are also an anti aging agent so, eat it regularly.
  8. Soya product like soy yogurt and tempeh are rich in probiotics.
  9. Soya beans are also a good source of Vitamin B12
  10. Soya beans are perfect protein food as they are rich in all type of essential amino acid for a human body.

So, the above mentioned are some health benefits of soya bean. Really, sufficient enough to keep us healthy. Have a try it!!

Is soy bad? No, soybeans are a nutritive plant which is full of minerals & vitamins. So, they could not be bad, if taken in the proper way.

Read Also: Step by Step Guide on How to produce a Home-Made Soyabean Powder

Varieties of Soybean

For growing soybeans, the cultivar selected for its cultivation is an important factor in deciding your production. If you are going to commercial soya bean farming, then it is recommended to select a high-yielding hybrid to achieve maximum or optimum amount of yield. In this, I can help you in the selection of a good species of soya bean.

Here is a list of soya bean varieties that are commonly used by the people for soya bean farming in India.

 Soya bean variety Soya bean variety
 Ahilya-1 (NRC 2)Ahilya-2 (NRC 12)
AnkurNRC 37 (Ahilya 4)
AlankarJS 335
ADT-1Ahilya-3 (NRC 7)
Co Soya-2Gaurav (JS 72-44)
Birsa soy 1Gujarat soybean 2   (J-202)
Durga (JS 72-280)Hara soy (Himso 1563)
HardeeIndira soy 9
JS 79-81JS 90-41
JS 71-5JS 75-46
Improved PelicanJS 2
JS 80-21Gujarat soybean 1   (J-231)
Parbhani SonaMACS 58
KaliturSneh (KB 79)
JS 76-205JS 93-05
KHSb 2 

Hence this is all about the hybrid that is notified in India.

Note: Please contact your nearest horticulture department to choose the best; in accordance with your climate condition and source available.

Agroclimatic conditions for Soybean farming

An agro-climatic condition for any crop also plays an important role in your commercial farming. If agro-climatic condition supports a well than one can achieve optimum yield from any commercial crop.So, before starting any commercial crop farming must take care of the agroclimatic condition.

Note that, in India soya plant are one of the most stable Kharif crops and are also cultivated over a wide variety of soil. But, climate condition which is warm with humid is best climate condition for the good growth of Soya plant. All like other members of oil seed, it does not require much care for hardy growth.

Soya bean farming is also one the low maintenance crop which can grow well with minimum agricultural inputs because of which is cultivated most and is also a profitable one. All like other legumes, soya plant are able to assemble their Nitrogen requirement from the neighboring environment and also assists in increasing soil productivity

However, temp. ranging from 25 to 32 ‘C is supposed to be the best for soya bean cultivation for most of the soybean varieties. But a minimum soil temp about 16 “C is essential for a good growth and rapid germination of soya plant. It is found that it can grow well up to 12 ‘C with delayed in flowering.

Soya plants are short day plant. so day length is one of most important factor in soybean farming.

When are soybeans planted?

If you are going to following the soya bean farming commercially then you should be aware of what is the best time plant soybeans or when to plant soybeans in your area.

Meanwhile, the best time to grow soybeans is from 3rd week of June to mid of July. However, this may vary according to varieties of soy seeds and the climate condition.

Read Also: The Different Cropping Systems in Africa

Soil requirement in Soybean Farming

As it can grow well in any type of soil, it is widely cultivated in India. However, a fertile, well drained loamy soils are good for its cultivation.

The pH of the soil should be in range 6.0 to 7.5, neither too acidic nor too basic soil is most favorable for its cultivation. Saline and sodic soil frustrate germination of soya bean seed.

Avoid over watering as logging damages the crop, so it is compulsory to have good soil drainage in the rainy season.

Propagation in Soya bean farming

Propagation in any commercial farming needs a proper soybean populations, row spacing, a proper method of sowing, a good seed rate, proper spacing and a good seed treatment to achieve the optimum yield in that farming.

This all factors combined give their effect on the production of any crop. So, to obtain maximum yield in Soya bean farming here below is some information to learn more about the Propagation in Soya bean farming.

Land selection and Its preparation in Soybean Farming

A proper site for your commercial soybean farming is also an important task in propagation as this will impact the overall production. So, firstly bring the soil into fine tilth form which can be easily achieved by 2-3 plowing with a tractor.

Repeatedly cultivation on particular land may lead to in shelter of the pathogen, furtherly cause the diseased crop. So, it is a good idea to intercrop your soybean farm or rotate crop alternatively.

Soil; rich in organic matter and high productivity will defiantly help in obtaining the optimum amount of yield.

Method of Sowing in Soya bean Cultivation

Sowing of been is done in line keeping 45 to 65 spacing between them is supposed to the best row spacing for soybeans. And the between each plant should not be more than 4 to 5 cm is considered as the best soybean seed spacing.

How many soybean seeds to plant per acre or What should be soybean population seeds per feet? So, for commercial soy cultivation, plant about three to four plants per foot in a row. By this, one can achieve plant population of about 200,00 to 225,000 per acre easily.

The optimum soybean planting depth should be not more than  3 cm – 4 cm under typical moisture conditions.

Seed selection in Soybean Farming

Buy seed from authentic and well-known source and Genetic purity is an important factor in the selection of sowing seeds. Avoid hard, shrunken, immature, infected and damaged seed. An improved variety of seed can lead to good results. Select only that variety, which is a high yielding also fast growing in nature.

However, there are various soybean seeds for sale easily available in the market.

Read Also: The Different Nutrients required by Crops at each Growth Stage

Soybean fungicide seed treatments

Seed treatment before sowing the seed on the field is helpful in keeping the crop a disease-free mostly throughout the complete farming. Since fungicide seed treatments are used for managing seedling diseases that are caused by fungal pathogens.

Any seedling disease leads to lower plant population and lowers the production amount in your commercial crop. So, Soybean fungicide seed treatments are practice well to obtain a good yield in soya bean farming.

There are many options for soybean seed treatment like to control any seed borne diseases, Soybean seeds should be treated with carbendazim fungi­cide at 4gm per one kg of seed.

Seed Rate in Soybean Cultivation

Usually, a frequent question asked by the soybean growers is How many soybean seeds to plant per acre? Since a good seed rate leads to good result in yield.

However, a seed rate of soybean farming per acre varies, according to the variety of soybean used for the cultivation of it. Seed rate also depends on germination %, seed size and the sowing time.

Averagely, sowing about 15 kg of beans per acre is considered as the best one. Seed

Crop Rotation in Soybean Cultivation

To get rid of pathogen attacks in soybean cultivation, intercropping or crop rotation is should be done. Generally, intercropping with maize and Sesamum is founded more feasible and fetch more returns in Soya bean farming.

For intercropping with maize, plant maize keeping row spacing at about 90 to 100 cm and 10 cm apart from each other. And plant 3 to 4 rows of in between maize rows.

Irrigation in Soybean Farming

As soya plant crop is a Kharif crop, it needs less water than other commercial crops. But give water once to soy plant at the time of pod filling ( essential if there is long drought condition). In monsoon, make sure crop soil has proper drainage to avoid the water logging. Spring crop would require about 6 to 8 watering.

Must avoid over watering to this crop, it will lead to bad result as they require less water.

Application of Manures and Fertilizers in Soybean Farming

Timely application of manure and fertilizer to any crop are key factors in deciding the amount of yield. So, if your soil has some nutrition deficiency than it should be fulfilled by applying proper fertilizer to it.

Besides this, the soil must have some productivity power. To raise the productivity of your soil, apply about 5 tonnes of ordinary compost like cow dung manure to it as basal dose along with 40 kg Urea, 60 kg super phosphate, and 50 kg muriate of potash per acre land.

Fertilizing soybeans after planting

Timely application of phosphate is an important consideration when fertilizing soybeans, especially when the soil pH is 7.4 or higher. The phosphate should be applied in the spring before planting to reduce the time interval for contact between soil and fertilizer.

However, for commercial soya bean farming, liquid fertilizer for soybeans are easily available in the local market and has great application.

Soybean weed control guide

Hey, guys! here below is a list of a point on Soybean weed control guide. Learn them and take advantages of this guide.

  1. In commercial soya bean cultivation, application of baseline weedicide is recommended. Spray it immediately after sowing of bean and first watering by dissolving about 2 ml in one liter of water.
  2. Spray weedicide within three days of sowing beans, it did later that it may cause to completely damage of your soybean crop
  3. Use of any weedicide helps in controlling the early growth of weed, later emerging weeds in the crop.
  4. Carry out manual weeding after at regular interval like 10 or 15 days.
  5. Mix Baseline with 20 kg of sand and spread it on the field within three days of sowing bean, it will minimize your cost of spraying.

Follow them carefully to get control over weed in your soy farm.

Soybean insect & pests


Silverleaf whitefly, Pod-sucking bugs, Caterpillars, Helicoverpa and Brown shield bug are some common pest that’s are found in soy plant.

Use specific liquid fertilizer for soybeans pest control.

Soybean pest control

Collect those worms from the plant and destroyed these infected plant from your farm. Do not leave those worms near to your farm. Spray Phosphomidan or Methyl demeton by dissolving 2 ml per liter of water.

However, liquid fertilizer for soybeans is easily available in the local market for various pest, found in soybean farming. Use them according to the pests in your soy farm.


There is a various disease found in the cultivation of soya bean. These diseases can be easily identified by the symptoms. Here below are two diseases along with symptoms to identify them. Learn them and take advantages of this information.

Wilt is generally observed on soy plant at the time growing stage. A Wilt turns the soy plant to brown and destroyed plant completely. Usually, remove these affected plant, when it is noticed in your soy farm.

Powdery mildew is also one of the common diseases that is found in soya bean cultivation. It causes white powder deposits on the leaves.

Soybean disease control

Below is some advice to follow for disease control in soybean farming.

  1. Wilt; Spray the infected area of soy crop by using 0.1 % Bavistin solution.
  2. Powdery mildew; Controlled this disease by spraying M 45 with a rate of 5 gm per liter of water.

Soybean seedling diseases

Soybean seedling disease guide; In soya beans farming, Seed & seedling diseases of bean is common and notable problems. This problem lead lessen plant population and also the production. For this, carry out replanting.

Symptoms of seedling disease

What are the symptoms of the seedling disease? Due to seedling disease, seedlings do not occur or they die or are stunted. Infection and damage are common at the time of seedling occur, but difficult to identify them.

Read Also: The Complete List of Indigenous Crops of Africa

When are soybeans harvested?

If you are farming soya bean then, you must be aware of when does harvest season start for soybean? Usually, in late of September; when the days get shorter and the temperatures get cooler, the leaves on soybean plants begin to turn yellow, soybean begins to mature.

So, at this stage beans should be harvested for good amount of production. Maturity stage range from 50 to 140 days, but depending on variety use in cultivation.

By the mid of October & November, leaves start to turn yellow and drop down on the field. Also, bean pods dry out very quickly because of rapid moisture loss from the seed. At that stage, beans are ready for harvesting.

The moisture content of seed while harvesting should be about 16 %. Harvest beans by breaking the stalks on the ground level or hand, or with a sickle. Threshing should be done with the mechanical soybean thresher.

Threshing of seed should be done with help of mechanical soybean thresher.

Yield of Soybean

Crop yield depends on the variety of seed used for cultivation. However, a good crop management skill, proper care and a much dedication toward your soya farm can lead to obtaining the optimum production in soybean farming.

Averagely, a yield of 20 to 40 quintals per hector can be easily achieve with good farm management skill.

Increase soybean yields

Here are some tips for you that can increase soybean yield. So, follow them and achieve your best.

  1. Early Planting of bean tends to deliver higher amount of Soybean production or yield.
  2. Higher amount of Soybean production requires a high nutrient content in your soil.
  3. Soybean production depends on Sunlight, so farm soy beans in an open area.
  4. Pest Control: Critical to boosting Soybean production
  5. Crop rotation and inter-cropping: Rotating Soybeans and Corn is also helpful in increasing your soybean yield

There is a great demand for soya beans and its products like Tofu, soy yogurt, Soybean Oil, soy ice cream, soy chunks (meal maker), whipped soy topping, Soy Milk, Yuba, soy nuts, soy cheese, Soy Sauces, soy grits, and soy nut butter.

And besides this, soybeans are also used as meat alternative as Soya beans are rich in Proteins, which is normally found in chicken, red meat, fish, and eggs in the market.

Read Also: Comprehensive Guide to Dry Beans Production


Benadine Nonye is an agricultural consultant and a writer with several years of professional experience in the agriculture industry. - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education - PhD Student in Agricultural Economics and Environmental Policy... Visit My Websites On: 1. - Your Comprehensive Practical Agricultural Knowledge and Farmer’s Guide Website! 2. - For Effective Environmental Management through Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices! Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4Profits TV and WealthInWastes TV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

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