Monday, May 20, 2024
Nature's Pharmacy

20 Medicinal Health Benefits Of Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa)

Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa) is a woody vine native to the Amazon rainforest and other parts of Central and South America. Also known as Una de Gato, Cat’s Claw has a long history of traditional use among indigenous peoples for its potential health benefits. The vine gets its name from the hook-like thorns that resemble a cat’s claw.

The inner bark and roots of Cat’s Claw contain various compounds, including alkaloids, glycosides, and plant sterols, which are believed to contribute to its medicinal properties. The two primary species of Cat’s Claw used for medicinal purposes are Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis.

In traditional herbal medicine, Cat’s Claw has been used for its purported anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-stimulating properties. It has been employed to address various health concerns, including arthritis, digestive issues, and infections.

The plant has also been used as an adaptogen, helping the body adapt to stress and supporting overall well-being.

One of the key active components in Cat’s Claw is a group of compounds known as oxindole alkaloids. Research suggests that these alkaloids may have immune-modulating effects, potentially enhancing the activity of certain immune cells.

Cat’s Claw has gained popularity in modern herbalism and alternative medicine. It is often available in various forms, including teas, tinctures, capsules, and powders. Some people use Cat’s Claw supplements for immune system support, joint health, and overall wellness.

While Cat’s Claw has shown promise in some studies, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and its effectiveness for specific health conditions. As with any herbal remedy, it’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using Cat’s Claw, especially if you have underlying health conditions or are taking medications, as interactions and side effects may occur.

It’s important to note that sustainability practices are crucial when harvesting Cat’s Claw to ensure the conservation of this valuable plant in its natural habitat. Responsible sourcing and cultivation methods help preserve the biodiversity of the Amazon rainforest.

The Botanical Description of Cat’s Claw

1. Growth Habit: Cat’s Claw is a climbing vine that can reach heights of up to 100 feet, using its hooked thorns to anchor onto trees and other structures.

2. Leaves: The opposite leaves are elliptical with a smooth, glossy surface and a prominent central vein. They are arranged in pairs along the stem.

3. Flowers: The plant produces small, yellow flowers with a tubular shape. The flowering period typically occurs during the rainy season in its natural habitat.

4. Fruits: Cat’s Claw bears small, round fruits that turn orange when ripe. These fruits contain seeds and are an essential part of the plant’s reproductive cycle.

5. Thorns: The most distinctive feature is the hooked thorns, which resemble a cat’s claw. These thorns aid the vine in climbing and provide protection against herbivores.

6. Bark: The bark of Cat’s Claw is rough and contains active compounds that contribute to its medicinal properties.

7. Indigenous Names: Known by various indigenous names, such as “Una de Gato” in Spanish, Cat’s Claw has been used in traditional medicine by native communities for centuries.

8. Adaptability: Cat’s Claw has adapted to various ecological niches, thriving in both primary and secondary forests, and it is known for its resilience in challenging environments.

9. Conservation Status: Due to its popularity in herbal medicine, the harvesting of Cat’s Claw has raised concerns about its sustainability. Conservation efforts aim to ensure the plant’s long-term survival.

The Geographic Distribution of Cat’s Claw

1. Amazon Basin: The primary habitat of Cat’s Claw is the Amazon rainforest, where it flourishes in the dense vegetation and humid conditions.

2. Peru: Cat’s Claw is particularly abundant in Peru, where it has been traditionally used by indigenous communities for its medicinal properties.

3. Brazil: The plant is also found in various regions of Brazil, contributing to the rich biodiversity of the Brazilian rainforest.

4. Colombia: Cat’s Claw is present in the diverse ecosystems of Colombia, where it is valued for its potential health benefits.

5. Ecuador: The plant extends into the rainforests of Ecuador, where it grows alongside other botanical treasures in the region.

6. Bolivia: Cat’s Claw can be found in parts of Bolivia, adding to the plant diversity in the country’s tropical areas.

7. Venezuela: In Venezuela, Cat’s Claw is part of the intricate web of plant life within the country’s rainforest regions.

8. Other Tropical Regions: Apart from its native range, Cat’s Claw has been introduced and cultivated in tropical regions worldwide due to its medicinal properties.

The Chemical Composition of Cat’s Claw

1. Alkaloids: Cat’s Claw contains various alkaloids, including oxindole and indole alkaloids, such as rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline. These alkaloids contribute to the plant’s anti-inflammatory effects.

2. Quinovic Acid Glycosides: These compounds have been identified in Cat’s Claw and are believed to play a role in its immune-modulating effects.

3. Triterpenes: Cat’s Claw is rich in triterpenes, including pentacyclic triterpenes, which have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

4. Plant Sterols: Sterols, such as beta-sitosterol, are present in Cat’s Claw and contribute to its potential cholesterol-lowering effects.

5. Polyphenols: Cat’s Claw contains polyphenolic compounds, including flavonoids and tannins, which exhibit antioxidant activity.

6. Procyanidins: These antioxidant compounds are found in Cat’s Claw and contribute to its ability to neutralize free radicals.

7. Plant Saponins: Saponins are bioactive compounds with potential immune-modulating effects, and they are part of Cat’s Claw’s chemical profile.

8. Plant Lignans: Lignans, such as secoiridoid lignans, are present in Cat’s Claw and may contribute to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

9. Quercetin: Cat’s Claw contains quercetin, a flavonoid known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

10. Beta-Carbolines: These compounds, including harman and harmine, are present in Cat’s Claw and may contribute to its biological activities.

11. Proanthocyanidins: Cat’s Claw contains proanthocyanidins, which are powerful antioxidants that may support overall health.

12. Plant Polysaccharides: Polysaccharides found in Cat’s Claw may contribute to its immune-modulating effects and overall health benefits.

Read Also: 17 Medicinal Health Benefits Of Balm of Gilead (Populus balsamifera)

The Medicinal Health Benefits Of Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa)

20 Medicinal Health Benefits Of Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa)

1. Immune System Support: Cat’s Claw is known for its immune-modulating properties, supporting the body’s natural defenses against infections and illnesses.

2. Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Compounds like oxindole alkaloids contribute to Cat’s Claw’s anti-inflammatory effects, making it a potential remedy for inflammatory conditions.

3. Antioxidant Protection: The presence of polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, and quercetin provides Cat’s Claw with antioxidant properties, protecting cells from oxidative stress.

4. Joint Health: Cat’s Claw has been traditionally used to promote joint health and may provide relief for individuals with joint discomfort.

5. Gastrointestinal Health: The plant may have positive effects on the gastrointestinal system, aiding in digestion and supporting a healthy gut environment.

6. Cardiovascular Support: Components like beta-sitosterol and plant sterols contribute to potential cardiovascular benefits, including cholesterol management.

7. Antiviral Properties: Cat’s Claw has demonstrated antiviral activity, potentially inhibiting the replication of certain viruses.

8. Antifungal Effects: The plant has shown antifungal properties, making it a subject of interest for addressing fungal infections.

9. Wound Healing: Traditional uses of Cat’s Claw include promoting wound healing, and its anti-inflammatory effects may contribute to this property.

10. Cognitive Function: Some studies suggest that Cat’s Claw may have neuroprotective effects, potentially supporting cognitive function.

11. Anticancer Potential: While more research is needed, certain compounds in Cat’s Claw have shown anticancer properties in preclinical studies.

12. Allergy Relief: Cat’s Claw may help alleviate allergy symptoms due to its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects.

13. Diabetes Management: Preliminary research indicates that Cat’s Claw may have benefits for individuals managing diabetes, potentially influencing blood sugar levels.

14. Lyme Disease Support: Some individuals use Cat’s Claw as a complementary approach for supporting Lyme disease treatment, although more research is needed in this area.

15. Antirheumatic Effects: Cat’s Claw has been traditionally used for rheumatic conditions, and its anti-inflammatory properties may contribute to relief from rheumatism.

16. Antiparasitic Activity: The plant has demonstrated antiparasitic effects, showing potential in addressing certain parasitic infections.

17. Adaptogenic Properties: Cat’s Claw is considered an adaptogen, helping the body adapt to stress and promoting overall resilience.

18. Respiratory Health: Traditional uses include supporting respiratory health, and Cat’s Claw may have potential benefits for conditions like asthma and bronchitis.

19. Antidepressant Effects: While more research is needed, some studies suggest that Cat’s Claw may have antidepressant-like effects.

20. Liver Health: Cat’s Claw may support liver health, potentially aiding in detoxification processes.

The Methods of Usage to Achieve the Provided Health Benefits Of Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa)

1. Herbal Tea: One of the most common ways to consume Cat’s Claw is by brewing a herbal tea. This involves steeping the dried bark or leaves in hot water to create a soothing and health-promoting beverage.

2. Tinctures: Cat’s Claw tinctures, often alcohol-based extracts, provide a concentrated form of the plant’s active compounds. They can be taken by placing a few drops under the tongue or mixing them with water.

3. Capsules and Supplements: Cat’s Claw is available in capsule or supplement form, providing a convenient way to incorporate it into daily health routines. Follow recommended dosage guidelines for these formulations.

4. Topical Applications: Cat’s Claw creams or ointments are applied topically to the skin, offering potential benefits for joint health, wound healing, or skin conditions.

5. Extracts: Liquid extracts of Cat’s Claw can be added to beverages or taken directly, offering a concentrated dose of the plant’s beneficial compounds.

6. Powdered Form: Cat’s Claw is available in powdered form, allowing for versatile usage. It can be added to smoothies, yogurt, or other foods for an easy and palatable way to consume it.

7. Traditional Decoctions: In traditional medicine, decoctions involve simmering Cat’s Claw bark in water to create a concentrated liquid that can be consumed for its health benefits.

8. Combination Formulas: Cat’s Claw is often included in herbal formulations or combination supplements designed to address specific health concerns. These formulations may combine it with other complementary herbs.

9. Ethical Harvesting: Sustainable harvesting methods involve collecting Cat’s Claw in a way that ensures the plant’s long-term survival. Harvesting practices should be ethical, considering conservation and environmental impact.

10. Consultation with Healthcare Professionals: Before incorporating Cat’s Claw into health regimens, especially in medicinal doses, it is advisable to consult with healthcare professionals. They can provide personalized advice based on individual health conditions and potential interactions with medications.

The Side Effects Of Using Cat’s Claw Medicinal Plant

1. Allergic Reactions: Some individuals may be allergic to Cat’s Claw, leading to symptoms such as itching, rash, or swelling. Conduct a patch test before widespread use.

2. Gastrointestinal Discomfort: In some cases, the use of Cat’s Claw may cause mild gastrointestinal discomfort, including nausea or stomach upset.

3. Blood Pressure Interactions: Cat’s Claw may influence blood pressure, and individuals with hypertension should monitor their blood pressure levels when using it.

4. Autoimmune Conditions: Cat’s Claw may have immune-modulating effects, and individuals with autoimmune conditions should use it with caution, consulting healthcare professionals.

5. Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Pregnant or breastfeeding individuals should exercise caution, and consultation with healthcare professionals is advised due to limited safety data.

6. Surgery Interactions: Cat’s Claw may affect blood pressure and immune function. Inform healthcare providers about Cat’s Claw use if undergoing surgery or medical procedures.

7. Drug Interactions (Continued): Cat’s Claw may interact with certain medications, including anticoagulants, antihypertensives, and immunosuppressants. It is crucial to inform healthcare providers about Cat’s Claw use to prevent potential adverse interactions.

8. Dizziness: In some cases, Cat’s Claw may cause dizziness. Individuals using it should be cautious, especially when engaging in activities that require alertness.

9. Pregnancy and Fertility: Due to limited research on its effects during pregnancy, pregnant individuals and those trying to conceive should consult healthcare professionals before using Cat’s Claw.

10. Potential Overstimulation: Excessive consumption of Cat’s Claw may lead to overstimulation of the immune system. It is advisable to follow recommended dosages to prevent potential adverse effects.

11. Liver Health: While Cat’s Claw may have potential benefits for liver health, individuals with existing liver conditions should exercise caution and consult healthcare professionals.

12. Children and Elderly: Limited safety data are available for the use of Cat’s Claw in children and the elderly. Consultation with healthcare professionals is recommended for these populations.

13. Photosensitivity: Cat’s Claw may cause photosensitivity in some individuals, making them more susceptible to sunburn. Sun protection measures should be taken when using Cat’s Claw.

14. Stomach Ulcers: Individuals with a history of stomach ulcers or gastrointestinal issues should use Cat’s Claw cautiously, as it may cause irritation in some cases.

15. Purity of Products: To avoid potential contaminants or adulterants, it is crucial to choose Cat’s Claw products from reputable sources that adhere to quality standards.

16. Quality and Dosage: The quality of Cat’s Claw products can vary, impacting their effectiveness. It is essential to choose high-quality products and follow recommended dosage guidelines.

17. Ethical Harvesting: Considering the sustainability of Cat’s Claw, users should prioritize products that are sourced through ethical harvesting practices to support conservation efforts.

18. Reporting Adverse Effects: Users experiencing unexpected reactions or adverse effects from Cat’s Claw should discontinue use and report incidents to healthcare professionals and relevant authorities.

19. Individual Sensitivity: Individuals may vary in their sensitivity to Cat’s Claw, and it is advisable to start with lower doses to assess individual tolerance.

20. Long-Term Use: While Cat’s Claw can be used for various health benefits, moderation and periodic breaks are advisable to prevent potential cumulative effects. Users should pay attention to individual responses over long-term use.

Read Also: The Benefits and Uses of Cranberry Fruits

The Scientific Research and Studies of Cat’s Claw

20 Medicinal Health Benefits Of Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa)

1. Immunomodulatory Effects: Research has demonstrated the immunomodulatory effects of Cat’s Claw, suggesting its ability to enhance immune function and response.

2. Anti-Inflammatory Properties: Cat’s Claw has been studied for its anti-inflammatory properties, attributed to compounds like oxindole alkaloids. These properties may be beneficial for conditions involving inflammation.

3. Antioxidant Activity: Studies indicate that Cat’s Claw exhibits antioxidant activity, helping neutralize free radicals and protect cells from oxidative stress.

4. Arthritis and Joint Health: Some research suggests that Cat’s Claw may be beneficial for arthritis and joint health, potentially reducing inflammation and improving symptoms.

5. Antiviral and Antifungal Activity: Cat’s Claw has shown antiviral and antifungal activity in studies, indicating its potential in inhibiting the replication of certain viruses and addressing fungal infections.

6. Cardiovascular Effects: Components like beta-sitosterol in Cat’s Claw have been investigated for their potential cardiovascular effects, including cholesterol-lowering properties.

7. Cognitive Function: Preliminary studies suggest that Cat’s Claw may have neuroprotective effects, potentially supporting cognitive function.

8. Anticancer Potential: While more research is needed, certain compounds in Cat’s Claw have demonstrated anticancer properties in preclinical studies.

9. Anti-allergic Effects: Cat’s Claw has been studied for its potential anti-allergic effects, suggesting a role in alleviating allergy symptoms.

10. Antidiabetic Properties: Some research indicates that Cat’s Claw may have benefits for individuals managing diabetes, potentially influencing blood sugar levels.

11. Antiparasitic Effects: Studies suggest that Cat’s Claw exhibits antiparasitic effects, showing potential in addressing certain parasitic infections.

12. Anti-rheumatic Effects: Cat’s Claw has been traditionally used for rheumatic conditions, and research supports its anti-inflammatory properties in the context of rheumatism.

The Safety Precautions and Recommendations In Using Cat’s Claw Medicinal Plant

1. Consultation with Healthcare Professionals: Before incorporating Cat’s Claw into health regimens, especially in medicinal doses or for specific health conditions, it is advisable to consult with healthcare professionals. They can provide personalized advice based on individual health conditions and potential interactions with medications.

2. Dosage Guidelines: Follow recommended dosage guidelines provided by healthcare professionals or product labels. Avoid exceeding recommended doses to prevent potential adverse effects.

3. Quality of Products: Choose Cat’s Claw products from reputable sources that adhere to quality standards. High-quality products contribute to the efficacy and safety of the plant.

4. Duration of Use: While Cat’s Claw can be used for various health benefits, moderation and periodic breaks are advisable. Prolonged and continuous use without breaks may lead to potential cumulative effects.

5. Monitoring Individual Responses: Pay attention to individual responses when using Cat’s Claw. Monitor for any unexpected reactions or side effects, and adjust usage accordingly.

6. Allergic Reactions: Conduct a patch test before widespread use to check for potential allergic reactions. If itching, rash, or swelling occurs, discontinue use and seek medical advice.

7. Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Pregnant and breastfeeding individuals should exercise caution, and consultation with healthcare professionals is advised due to limited safety data on Cat’s Claw during these periods.

8. Children and Elderly: Limited safety data are available for the use of Cat’s Claw in children and the elderly. Consultation with healthcare professionals is recommended for these populations.

9. Blood Pressure Monitoring: Cat’s Claw may influence blood pressure. Individuals with hypertension should monitor their blood pressure levels when using it. Inform healthcare providers about Cat’s Claw use during medical check-ups.

10. Autoimmune Conditions: Cat’s Claw has immune-modulating effects. Individuals with autoimmune conditions should use it with caution, and healthcare professionals’ guidance is essential.

11. Surgery and Medical Procedures: Inform healthcare providers about Cat’s Claw use if undergoing surgery or medical procedures. Certain compounds in Cat’s Claw may interact with medications used during medical interventions.

12. Individual Sensitivity: Individuals may vary in their sensitivity to Cat’s Claw. Start with lower doses to assess individual tolerance, especially when using it for the first time.

13. Photosensitivity: Cat’s Claw may cause photosensitivity in some individuals. Take sun protection measures, such as sunscreen and protective clothing, to avoid sunburn.

14. Liver Health: Individuals with existing liver conditions should use Cat’s Claw cautiously and consult healthcare professionals.

15. Reporting Adverse Effects: Users experiencing unexpected reactions or adverse effects from Cat’s Claw should discontinue use and report incidents to healthcare professionals and relevant authorities.

16. Ethical Harvesting: Prioritize products that are sourced through ethical harvesting practices to support conservation efforts and ensure sustainability.

17. Sun Protection: If using Cat’s Claw and experiencing photosensitivity, take precautions such as avoiding prolonged sun exposure and using protective measures.

18. Combination with Other Medications: Inform healthcare providers about the use of Cat’s Claw when taking other medications. Some compounds in Cat’s Claw may interact with certain drugs.

19. Avoiding Excessive Consumption: Avoid excessive consumption of Cat’s Claw to prevent potential overstimulation of the immune system or other adverse effects.

20. Seeking Professional Advice: When in doubt or faced with specific health concerns, seek professional advice from healthcare practitioners familiar with herbal medicine and integrative health approaches.

FAQs About Cat’s Claw Medicinal Plant

1. Is Cat’s Claw Safe for Long-Term Use?
Cat’s Claw is generally considered safe for long-term use when used within recommended dosage guidelines. However, periodic breaks may be advisable to prevent potential cumulative effects. Consultation with healthcare professionals is recommended for extended or medicinal use.

2. Can Cat’s Claw Be Used During Pregnancy?
Pregnant individuals should exercise caution, and consultation with healthcare professionals is advised due to limited safety data on Cat’s Claw during pregnancy. It is crucial to discuss potential risks and benefits before use.

3. Does Cat’s Claw Interact with Medications?
Cat’s Claw may interact with certain medications, including anticoagulants, antihypertensives, and immunosuppressants. Inform healthcare providers about Cat’s Claw use to prevent potential adverse interactions.

4. What Are the Signs of Allergic Reactions to Cat’s Claw?
Signs of allergic reactions may include itching, rash, or swelling. Conduct a patch test before widespread use to check for potential allergies. Discontinue use and seek medical advice if allergic reactions occur.

5. Can Cat’s Claw Be Used Topically?
Yes, Cat’s Claw can be used topically in the form of creams or ointments. Topical applications may be beneficial for joint health, wound healing, or addressing skin conditions.

6. Are There Age Restrictions for Using Cat’s Claw?
Limited safety data are available for the use of Cat’s Claw in children and the elderly. Consultation with healthcare professionals is recommended for these populations to ensure safe usage.

7. Can Cat’s Claw Be Used for Joint Pain?
Cat’s Claw has been traditionally used to promote joint health, and research suggests potential anti-inflammatory effects. It may be beneficial for individuals experiencing joint pain, but consultation with healthcare professionals is advised.

8. How Does Cat’s Claw Support the Immune System?
Cat’s Claw exhibits immune-modulating effects, supporting the body’s natural defenses against infections and illnesses. Compounds like oxindole alkaloids contribute to its immunomodulatory properties.

9. Is Cat’s Claw Safe for Individuals with Autoimmune Conditions?
Cat’s Claw has immune-modulating effects, and individuals with autoimmune conditions should use it with caution. Consultation with healthcare professionals is essential to assess individual suitability.

10. Can Cat’s Claw Be Used for Cardiovascular Health?
Components like beta-sitosterol in Cat’s Claw have been investigated for potential cardiovascular benefits, including cholesterol management. Consultation with healthcare professionals is recommended for cardiovascular concerns.

11. What Are the Potential Anticancer Properties of Cat’s Claw?
While some compounds in Cat’s Claw have shown anticancer properties in preclinical studies, more research is needed to determine its effectiveness and safety for addressing cancer. It is not a substitute for conventional cancer treatments.

12. How Does Cat’s Claw Exhibit Antiviral Activity?
Cat’s Claw has demonstrated antiviral activity in studies, potentially inhibiting the replication of certain viruses. Specific mechanisms may involve interference with viral entry or replication processes.

13. Can Cat’s Claw Be Used for Diabetes Management?
Preliminary research indicates potential benefits of Cat’s Claw for individuals managing diabetes, potentially influencing blood sugar levels. However, further studies are needed, and consultation with healthcare professionals is advised.

14. What Precautions Should Be Taken for Cat’s Claw Photosensitivity?
Cat’s Claw may cause photosensitivity in some individuals. Sun protection measures, such as sunscreen and protective clothing, should be taken to avoid sunburn.

15. How Does Cat’s Claw Support Cognitive Function?
Preliminary studies suggest that Cat’s Claw may have neuroprotective effects, potentially supporting cognitive function. Further research is needed to explore its mechanisms and efficacy in this regard.

16. Can Cat’s Claw Be Used for Allergy Relief?
Cat’s Claw may help alleviate allergy symptoms due to its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects. It is advisable to consult with healthcare professionals for personalized advice.

17. Is Cat’s Claw Considered an Adaptogen?
Yes, Cat’s Claw is considered an adaptogen, helping the body adapt to stress and promoting overall resilience. Its adaptogenic properties contribute to its traditional use for various health concerns.

18. How Can Cat’s Claw Be Ethically Harvested?
Ethical harvesting involves collecting Cat’s Claw in a way that ensures the plant’s long-term survival and minimizes environmental impact. Sustainable practices, conservation efforts, and adherence to ethical guidelines contribute to responsible harvesting.

19. Can Cat’s Claw Be Used Alongside Other Herbal Supplements?
Cat’s Claw is often included in herbal formulations or combination supplements. However, when combining with other herbal supplements, it is advisable to consider potential interactions and consult healthcare professionals.

20. How Should Adverse Effects of Cat’s Claw Be Reported?
Users experiencing unexpected reactions or adverse effects from Cat’s Claw should discontinue use and report incidents to healthcare professionals and relevant authorities. Providing detailed information about the product and its usage can contribute to monitoring and safety efforts.

Read Also: Meaning and the Various Flotation Processes

Agric4Profits

Benadine Nonye is an agricultural consultant and a writer with over 12 years of professional experience in the agriculture industry. - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education - PhD Student in Agricultural Economics and Environmental Policy... Visit My Websites On: 1. Agric4Profits.com - Your Comprehensive Practical Agricultural Knowledge and Farmer’s Guide Website! 2. WealthinWastes.com - For Effective Environmental Management through Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices! Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4Profits TV and WealthInWastes TV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

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