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General Agriculture

Common Terms and Importance of Feeds in Animal Nutrition

Common Terms and Importance of Feeds in Animal Nutrition

The rapid success and expansion of the livestock industry depends on the availability of good quality, quantity and cheap compounded feeds. This is particularly true of the intensive livestock enterprises such as poultry, pigs and rabbits, whose performance depends mainly on the use concentrate and balanced compounded feeds.

Therefore, the single most important constraint facing the livestock industry are several problems relating to the inadequate supply, high cost and poor quality of feeds have seriously threatened the (poultry) livestock industry in recent times.

Importance of Feeds in Animal nutrition

The importance of feed in animal production is enormous and must be properly understood. The chemistry of feed nutrients, their implication and application in animal production must be studied to have success in the enterprise.

Feeding has a direct impact on the growth rate, production capacity and health status of the animal. Feeding is key for a profitable and sustainable farming. The cost of feeding has long been recognized as the major cost and the largest cash expense in animal production.

It has effect on the animal‘s product quality. In addition to this, it also has effects on the environment. Therefore, knowledge on animal nutrition is key for a profitable and sustainable farming. Animal nutrition focuses on studying the dietary needs of the animals.

Common Terms Used In Animal Nutrition

Before looking at the different types of food stuffs in more detail, there are several terms and definitions with which you should become familiar.

Nutrition– the science involving various chemical and physiological activities, which transform feed elements (nutrients) into body elements.

Feed – is a material, which after ingestion by the animal is capable of being digested, absorbed and utilized i.e. before transformed into body elements of the animal. A feed is merely the carrier of nutrients.

Feedstuff/Feed ingredients– a feeding stuff is any product, whether of natural origin or artificially prepared that when properly used has nutritional value in the diet.

It includes It includes naturally occurring plant or animal products and by-products. synthetic and other pure nutrients.

It also includes vitamin or mineral supplements that are chemically synthesized, or otherwise manufactured pure nutrients.

Nutrients – a nutrient is defined as any feed constituent or group of feed constituents of the same general chemical composition or a pure chemical compound that aids in the support of animal life.

The constituents of a feed that are capable of being transformed into body elements are known as nutrients

Arationis a 24-hour allowance of feed stuff or of mixture of the feedstuffs/feed ingredients that is given to an animal. The important thing to note is that the term carries no implications that the allowance is adequate in quantity or kind to meet the nutritional needs of the animal for which it is intended.

These can be explained as follows: RATION: the daily allowance of food for one person (e.g. a soldier) or one animal (e.g. a steer). Remember, the ration may not be enough for optimum production. DIET: this is what the person or animal usually eats or drinks

Feeding– is a practical application of nutrition, (consideration of management, formulation, palatability, and economics), etc.

Formulation – is the process of constructing a feed or diet formular.

Balanced diet – the food or feed that supplies all the essential nutrients in the proper amounts required for optimum performance of the animal.

Completefeed– a balanced ration for the animal in a single form. It provides all the nutritional requirements (except water) needed to maintain normal health or to promote production.

Basal (Energy) Feeds – nutritionally, basal feeds are mainly concentrated sources of energy being especially rich in starches and sugars. They are grains and grain by-products that contain not more than 16% protein and 18% crude fibre.

Supplement – is a feed or a feed mixture use with another feed to improve the nutritive balance of the total ration or diet.

Concentrate – is usually described as feed or feed mixture which are rich in primary nutrients (protein, carbohydrates and fat) but low in fiber.

For example, corn, soybean meal, oats, wheat, molasses It is a commercially prepared supplement which refers to a concentration of protein, minerals or of vitamins in excess of those found in basal feeds.

Husks – is leaf enveloping an ear of maize or outer covering of kernels or seeds especially in the dry form.

Ear of maize – entire fruiting head of Zea mays including only cob and grain.

Cob – the fibrous inner portion of the ear of maize from which the kernels have been removed.

Kernel– refers to a whole grain.

Hulls– outer covering of grain or kernel.

Forage or roughage – any material substance for feeding livestock, which contains more than 18% crude fibre, materials making up the fodder.

Anorexia– loss of appetite in disease condition.

Appetite – is a desire or inclination for food. It is a conditioned reflex. It is related to taste, smell and appearance of food. Appetite is well developed in man than in farm animals.

Additive – a substance (or mixture of substances) added to the feed to meet a specific purpose. An additive may enhance the nutritive value, sensory value or shelf life of the feed.

Additive is involved in the production, processing, packaging and/or storage of the feed without being a major ingredient.

GIT– Gastro intestinal tract, responsible for the digestion, absorption and assimilation of feed and nutrients.

Ration Formulation – this is the act of combination and recombination in specific ratios of feed ingredients/feedstuffs to obtain feed for the nutrient requirement of farm animals.

Feedmill– is an establishment/place where feeds/commercial feeds are provided using specialized equipment according to the feed formulation.

Feedmillers– owner of a feedmill, for commercial/personal use.

Proximate Analysis – this refers to the analysis of chemical constituents of feed, feed ingredients using established standard methodologies/procedures AOAC (1995).

Nutrient Requirements – this refers to specific requirements for nutrients by farm animals and this can be affected by several factors.

Antinutritional factors – these refers to chemical compounds/metabolites which interfere with the normal process of digestion, absorption and assimilation of nutrients from feedstuffs/feeds.

FeedMicroscopy– this is the science of identification, evaluation of feeds/feedstuffs by visual appraisal using a microscope, hand lenses. Essentially it involves physical and textural examinations.

Nutrition evaluation– refers to the assessment of feed/feedstuff for its nutritional adequacy. This can be physical, chemical, biological or microbiological in nature

ADF: acid detergent fibre – a laboratory estimate of the less digestible fibre in the plant. ADF is the best indicator of the fibre requirement for healthy rumen fermentation.

Fiber-Crude Protein (ADFCP) ADICP (or ADFCP) is the insoluble protein fraction remaining in the acid detergent fiber residue of a feed sample.

Digestibilityrefers to the extent to which a feedstuff is absorbed in the animal body as it passes through an animal‘s digestive tract. It varies greatly with the type of feedstuff and type of animal concerned.

Dry Matter Basis. Dry matter basis indicates the nutrient levels in a feed sample based on its dry matter content (i.e., excluding its water content).

Non-ruminants (monogastric) are animals having a single compartment or simple stomach system (e.g., swine, horse, cats).

Palatability refers to the appeal and acceptability of feedstuffs to an animal. Ruminantsare a class of animals that have multiple organs (compartments) working together to accomplish digestion.

Toxicityrefers to the extent to which a substance can exert a poisonous effect on animals.

Rancidityrefers to hydrolysis or oxidation of fats when exposed to air, light or moisture resulting in unpleasant taste or odour.

Forage is plant crops that is generally grown in a particular area or field with the intention of having it grazed by various livestock.

The crop plants usually grown for this purpose are of legumes, grasses, corn, oats, elephant grass, millet, and other edible plants. The act of eating or grazing upon the plant matter is known as foraging.

Animal Nutrition

Fodder is used to describe plants that is given to the animals after the plants have been harvested Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated animals

Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animal‘s future use.

Amino acids – The simplest organic structure of which proteins are formed; all have the common property of containing a carboxyl group and an amino group on the adjacent carbon atom.

Essential (indispensable) Amino acids – Those that must be present in the diet; they include arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

Nonessential (dispensable) Amino acids – Amino acids found in common proteins but which may be partly or completely synthesized by the animals.

Antioxidant– A substance that inhibits the oxidation of other compounds

Biological value – The efficiency with which a protein furnishes the required amounts of essential amino acids; usually expressed as a percentage.

Bran– The pericarp or seed coat of grain which is removed during processing and used as animal feed. Butyric acid – One of the volatile fatty acids commonly found in rumen contents and in poor-quality silages.

By-product – (Part) Secondary products produced in addition to the principal product.

Cake – (Physical form) The mass resulting from the pressing of seeds, meat, or fish in order to remove oils, fats, or other liquids.

Carotene– A yellow organic compound that is the precursor of vitamin A.

Cellulose – A polymer of glucose characterized by a linkage between the glucose molecules that is resistant to hydrolysis by most digestive enzymes (except some produced by microorganisms).

Premix – A uniform mixture of one or more micro-ingredients and a carrier, used in the introduction of micro-ingredients into a larger batch.

Stover – The mature, curled stalks and leaves of corn after the ears, or sorghum after the heads have been harvested.

As-fed Basis : Feed analyses reports often state results based on the feed‘s natural state (i.e., including water) and/or on a dry matter basis.

The term ―As-fed Basis‖ is used to alert the reader that the analytical results of a feed sample are based on its natural state including water. That means it is affected by the sample‘s moisture level before drying

In summary, this article serves as a general introduction to highlight the importance of animal nutrition in animal production. In order to enhance understanding the various terms used commonly in animal nutrition were explained.

The knowledge of animal nutrition is key for a profitable and sustainable farming. Animal nutrition focuses on studying the dietary needs of the animals. It requires a great deal of skill, knledge and practice to be able to feed animals optimally.

An animal that is fed well is given just enough (but not more) of the correct foods (feed having the right nutrients) so that it can realize its production potential.

The rapid success and expansion of the livestock industry depends on the availability of good quality, quantity and cheap compounded feeds. This is particularly true of the intensive livestock enterprises such as poultry, pigs and rabbits, whose performance depends mainly on the use concentrate and balanced compounded feeds.

Therefore, the single most important constraint facing the livestock industry are several problems relating to the inadequate supply, high cost and poor quality of feeds have seriously threatened the (poultry) livestock industry in recent times.

Importance of Feeds in Animal nutrition

The importance of feed in animal production is enormous and must be properly understood. The chemistry of feed nutrients, their implication and application in animal production must be studied to have success in the enterprise.

Feeding has a direct impact on the growth rate, production capacity and health status of the animal. Feeding is key for a profitable and sustainable farming. The cost of feeding has long been recognized as the major cost and the largest cash expense in animal production.

It has effect on the animal‘s product quality. In addition to this, it also has effects on the environment. Therefore, knowledge on animal nutrition is key for a profitable and sustainable farming. Animal nutrition focuses on studying the dietary needs of the animals.

Common Terms Used In Animal Nutrition

Before looking at the different types of food stuffs in more detail, there are several terms and definitions with which you should become familiar.

Nutrition– the science involving various chemical and physiological activities, which transform feed elements (nutrients) into body elements.

Feed – is a material, which after ingestion by the animal is capable of being digested, absorbed and utilized i.e. before transformed into body elements of the animal. A feed is merely the carrier of nutrients.

Feedstuff/Feed ingredients– a feeding stuff is any product, whether of natural origin or artificially prepared that when properly used has nutritional value in the diet.

It includes It includes naturally occurring plant or animal products and by-products. synthetic and other pure nutrients.

It also includes vitamin or mineral supplements that are chemically synthesized, or otherwise manufactured pure nutrients.

Nutrients – a nutrient is defined as any feed constituent or group of feed constituents of the same general chemical composition or a pure chemical compound that aids in the support of animal life.

The constituents of a feed that are capable of being transformed into body elements are known as nutrients

Arationis a 24-hour allowance of feed stuff or of mixture of the feedstuffs/feed ingredients that is given to an animal. The important thing to note is that the term carries no implications that the allowance is adequate in quantity or kind to meet the nutritional needs of the animal for which it is intended.

These can be explained as follows: RATION: the daily allowance of food for one person (e.g. a soldier) or one animal (e.g. a steer). Remember, the ration may not be enough for optimum production. DIET: this is what the person or animal usually eats or drinks

Feeding– is a practical application of nutrition, (consideration of management, formulation, palatability, and economics), etc.

Formulation – is the process of constructing a feed or diet formular.

Balanced diet – the food or feed that supplies all the essential nutrients in the proper amounts required for optimum performance of the animal.

Completefeed– a balanced ration for the animal in a single form. It provides all the nutritional requirements (except water) needed to maintain normal health or to promote production.

Basal (Energy) Feeds – nutritionally, basal feeds are mainly concentrated sources of energy being especially rich in starches and sugars. They are grains and grain by-products that contain not more than 16% protein and 18% crude fibre.

Supplement – is a feed or a feed mixture use with another feed to improve the nutritive balance of the total ration or diet.

Concentrate – is usually described as feed or feed mixture which are rich in primary nutrients (protein, carbohydrates and fat) but low in fiber.

For example, corn, soybean meal, oats, wheat, molasses It is a commercially prepared supplement which refers to a concentration of protein, minerals or of vitamins in excess of those found in basal feeds.

Husks – is leaf enveloping an ear of maize or outer covering of kernels or seeds especially in the dry form.

Ear of maize – entire fruiting head of Zea mays including only cob and grain.

Cob – the fibrous inner portion of the ear of maize from which the kernels have been removed.

Kernel– refers to a whole grain.

Hulls– outer covering of grain or kernel.

Forage or roughage – any material substance for feeding livestock, which contains more than 18% crude fibre, materials making up the fodder.

Anorexia– loss of appetite in disease condition.

Appetite – is a desire or inclination for food. It is a conditioned reflex. It is related to taste, smell and appearance of food. Appetite is well developed in man than in farm animals.

Additive – a substance (or mixture of substances) added to the feed to meet a specific purpose. An additive may enhance the nutritive value, sensory value or shelf life of the feed.

Additive is involved in the production, processing, packaging and/or storage of the feed without being a major ingredient.

GIT– Gastro intestinal tract, responsible for the digestion, absorption and assimilation of feed and nutrients.

Ration Formulation – this is the act of combination and recombination in specific ratios of feed ingredients/feedstuffs to obtain feed for the nutrient requirement of farm animals.

Feedmill– is an establishment/place where feeds/commercial feeds are provided using specialized equipment according to the feed formulation.

Feedmillers– owner of a feedmill, for commercial/personal use.

Proximate Analysis – this refers to the analysis of chemical constituents of feed, feed ingredients using established standard methodologies/procedures AOAC (1995).

Nutrient Requirements – this refers to specific requirements for nutrients by farm animals and this can be affected by several factors.

Antinutritional factors – these refers to chemical compounds/metabolites which interfere with the normal process of digestion, absorption and assimilation of nutrients from feedstuffs/feeds.

FeedMicroscopy– this is the science of identification, evaluation of feeds/feedstuffs by visual appraisal using a microscope, hand lenses. Essentially it involves physical and textural examinations.

Nutrition evaluation– refers to the assessment of feed/feedstuff for its nutritional adequacy. This can be physical, chemical, biological or microbiological in nature

ADF: acid detergent fibre – a laboratory estimate of the less digestible fibre in the plant. ADF is the best indicator of the fibre requirement for healthy rumen fermentation.

Fiber-Crude Protein (ADFCP) ADICP (or ADFCP) is the insoluble protein fraction remaining in the acid detergent fiber residue of a feed sample.

Digestibilityrefers to the extent to which a feedstuff is absorbed in the animal body as it passes through an animal‘s digestive tract. It varies greatly with the type of feedstuff and type of animal concerned.

Dry Matter Basis. Dry matter basis indicates the nutrient levels in a feed sample based on its dry matter content (i.e., excluding its water content).

Non-ruminants (monogastric) are animals having a single compartment or simple stomach system (e.g., swine, horse, cats).

Palatability refers to the appeal and acceptability of feedstuffs to an animal. Ruminantsare a class of animals that have multiple organs (compartments) working together to accomplish digestion.

Toxicityrefers to the extent to which a substance can exert a poisonous effect on animals.

Rancidityrefers to hydrolysis or oxidation of fats when exposed to air, light or moisture resulting in unpleasant taste or odour.

Forage is plant crops that is generally grown in a particular area or field with the intention of having it grazed by various livestock.

The crop plants usually grown for this purpose are of legumes, grasses, corn, oats, elephant grass, millet, and other edible plants. The act of eating or grazing upon the plant matter is known as foraging.

Fodder is used to describe plants that is given to the animals after the plants have been harvested Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated animals

Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animal‘s future use.

Amino acids – The simplest organic structure of which proteins are formed; all have the common property of containing a carboxyl group and an amino group on the adjacent carbon atom.

Essential (indispensable) Amino acids – Those that must be present in the diet; they include arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

Nonessential (dispensable) Amino acids – Amino acids found in common proteins but which may be partly or completely synthesized by the animals.

Antioxidant– A substance that inhibits the oxidation of other compounds

Biological value – The efficiency with which a protein furnishes the required amounts of essential amino acids; usually expressed as a percentage.

Bran– The pericarp or seed coat of grain which is removed during processing and used as animal feed. Butyric acid – One of the volatile fatty acids commonly found in rumen contents and in poor-quality silages.

By-product – (Part) Secondary products produced in addition to the principal product.

Cake – (Physical form) The mass resulting from the pressing of seeds, meat, or fish in order to remove oils, fats, or other liquids.

Carotene– A yellow organic compound that is the precursor of vitamin A.

Cellulose – A polymer of glucose characterized by a linkage between the glucose molecules that is resistant to hydrolysis by most digestive enzymes (except some produced by microorganisms).

Premix – A uniform mixture of one or more micro-ingredients and a carrier, used in the introduction of micro-ingredients into a larger batch.

Stover – The mature, curled stalks and leaves of corn after the ears, or sorghum after the heads have been harvested.

As-fed Basis : Feed analyses reports often state results based on the feed‘s natural state (i.e., including water) and/or on a dry matter basis.

The term ―As-fed Basis‖ is used to alert the reader that the analytical results of a feed sample are based on its natural state including water. That means it is affected by the sample‘s moisture level before drying

In summary, this article serves as a general introduction to highlight the importance of animal nutrition in animal production. In order to enhance understanding the various terms used commonly in animal nutrition were explained.

The knowledge of animal nutrition is key for a profitable and sustainable farming. Animal nutrition focuses on studying the dietary needs of the animals. It requires a great deal of skill, knledge and practice to be able to feed animals optimally.

An animal that is fed well is given just enough (but not more) of the correct foods (feed having the right nutrients) so that it can realize its production potential.

Read Also : The Devastating Water Pollution Consequences

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Benadine Nonye is an agricultural consultant and a writer with several years of professional experience in the agriculture industry. - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education - PhD Student in Agricultural Economics and Environmental Policy... Visit My Websites On: 1. Agric4Profits.com - Your Comprehensive Practical Agricultural Knowledge and Farmer’s Guide Website! 2. WealthinWastes.com - For Effective Environmental Management through Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices! Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4Profits TV and WealthInWastes TV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

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