Wednesday, April 24, 2024
General Agriculture

Complete Guide on Treatment of Livestock Diseases

Treatment of sick animals affected with common livestock diseases is carried out only after a diagnosis has been made of the condition affecting the animal. Treatment can be the application of drugs or biological substance and/or surgical intervention to ameliorate or prevent a specific ailment or condition.

When treatment is required, care should be taken to select the appropriate drug, dose, frequency of administration, route of administration and the form in which the drug appears in order to achieve the desired result.

The choice of treatment especially for food animals like ruminants should take into account public health, environmental or regulatory concerns. Treatment is done usually using carried with orthodox (Western) conventional drugs and in some cases indigenous knowledge based practices now known as Ethnoveterinary medicine or practices.

Routes of Drug Administration in Livestock Animals

Complete Guide on Treatment of Livestock Diseases

Several routes are used for the administration of veterinary drugs. The choice of route and the technique of administration is based on a number of factors which include the species of animal, the physicochemical properties of the drug, the formulation and the disease in question.

However, the recommendations of the manufacturer should always be followed.

1. Oral

This is administration of drugs through the oral cavity or mouth and it is a natural route for drug administration. This route is suitable for drugs like antidiarrheals, anthelminthics, supplements etc.

When using this route, care must be taken to avoid drugs getting into the trachea. Drugs administered through this route are however, exposed to the action digestive enzymes and microorganisms that inhabit the digestive tract may affect the drug activity. Also, onset of drug action may be slower when compared with other routes.

Administration of drugs in feed and water is also through the oral route. Drug formulations or preparations administered using the oral route are tablets, boluses, suspensions, syrups and the like.

2. Parenteral

This route of drug administration involves using a hypodermic needle and syringe to introduce the medication between the skin and the enterical canal. The drug formulation or preparation is usually a stable aqueous solution or sometimes in oil base when delayed and prolonged absorption of the drug is desired.

The most frequently used parenteral routes are intramuscular (IM), intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC). Other less frequently used parenteral routes are intraperitoneal (IP), intrathoracic, intracardiac, intradermal and epidural.

3. Topical

Topical route of administration simply describes application of drugs locally to the skin and its adnexia or to any of the mucous membranes. Also included in this route are intrauterine, intravaginal, ocular, rectal, preputial, sublingual and intranasal.

Topical drug preparations include ointments, creams, pastes, dusting powders, lotions and sprays.

4. Pulmonaryroute (Inhalation)

This route is used for drugs in the gaseous state or volatile agents. They absorbed rapidly from the airways and alveoli into pulmonary circulation. They are usually applied using a nebulizer or by standard anaesthetic machines.

Complete Guide on Treatment of Livestock Diseases

5. Veterinary Preparations

Pharmaceutical preparation intended for use in animals come in different forms depending on the species of animals and the disease for which the preparation is targeted towards.

The various forms in which these preparations come included but not limited to tablets, capsules, creams, emulsions, ointments, injections, powders, gels, sprays, boluses and drops.

For the desired effect to be obtained, the drug must be administered using the appropriate route and in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendation.

Ethnoveterinary Medicine Practices

Pastoralists and other livestock farmers have relied on locally available plants and herbal preparations for treatment of their animals before the advent of western (orthodox) veterinary medicine.

This indigenous knowledge system is referred to as ethnoveterinary medicine or practices.

Ethnoveterinary medicine includes indigenous beliefs, knowledge, skills, methods and practices pertaining to the health care of animals. Ethno-veterinary medicine is largely used effectively by local farmers for keeping animals healthy and productive.

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Some advantages of ethnoveterinary medicine is that it is cheaper and based local resources. However, some difficulties associated with ethnoveterinary medicine include, lack of proper documentation and validation, difficulty in standardization and non-availability of plant parts all year round.

The use of several medical plants in the treatment of animals has been documented but the absence of standard dosages and preparations hampers their inclusion in normal animal health care delivery systems.

In conclusion, we have discussed the routes of drug administration in animals and the various forms or preparations in which veterinary drugs supplied.

We have also stated the classes of drugs used in treatment of animal diseases. This article has also defined what ethnoveterinary medicine is and compared it with orthodox (western) veterinary medicine.

In this article, you have learnt that:

The routes used for drug administration in animals are, oral, parenteral, topical and pulmonary. Veterinary drugs come in different forms or preparations namely, tablets, capsules, creams, emulsions, ointments, injections, powders, gels, sprays, boluses and drops.

Veterinary drugs are classified as antibacterial, antiprotozoan, antifungal, antheminthics, antidiarrheal and anti-inflammatory/analgesic agents. Ethnoveterinary medicine is essentially indigenous knowledge of animal health care by local farmers.

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Benadine Nonye is an agricultural consultant and a writer with over 12 years of professional experience in the agriculture industry. - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education - PhD Student in Agricultural Economics and Environmental Policy... Visit My Websites On: 1. - Your Comprehensive Practical Agricultural Knowledge and Farmer’s Guide Website! 2. - For Effective Environmental Management through Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices! Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4Profits TV and WealthInWastes TV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

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