Wednesday, April 24, 2024
General Agriculture

Effect of Stress on Animal Productivity

Generally heat result in increase in the blood volume and a decline in red blood count. However, longtime heat stress at moderate level leads to haemo-concentration as a result of heat loss. Heat loss also creates an acid surplus due to formation of lactate, metabolic or respiratory
acidiosis which may exhaust the bicarbonate buffer system of the blood resulting in a fall of PH.

Effect of Stress on Animal Productivity

The increase in blood volume also leads to a drop in total protein concentration. The decline in tyroxine secretion is accompanied by increase in ACTH (growth hormone) released and also induces the release of vasopressin from the posterior pituitary gland. Other effects of heat stress on specific productive parameters are discussed as follows:

1.Effect of heat of reproductive Function

In the male, heat stress impairs testicular function resulting in depressed spermatogenesis, lower testosterone function before leydig cells, delayed puberty, and decrease libido. There is also an increase in sperm abnormalities and impaired integrity of sertoli cells.

Heating the testises to abnormally high temperature cause a complete cessation of spermatogenesis. There is also a decline in sperm mobility, sperm density and fluctuation in seminal PH.

Read Also: Concept of Energy Balance in the Physical Environment in Animal Production

In female animals there is delayed puberty, reduced ovulation rate, increased incidence of silent heat. Short oestrous and prolonged oestrous cycle. Other effects are reduced conception rate, increased rate of embryonic mortality, increased litter abnormality, increased incidences of abortion and therefore depressed little size, low birth rate, poor growth rate and poor lactation.

2. Effect of Light on Reproduction

Certain animals are seasonal breeders while other breed throughout the year. Experiments have shown that exposing sheep to constant photoperiod reduces spermatogenesis and if the photoperiod is reduced to 13 hours daily there is increase in ovulation rate.

Seasonal fluctuation in day length is an important factor affecting the length of breeding in some other parts of the world except the tropics. In ewes the constant photoperiod is not as efficient as reducing photoperiod in inducing oestrus.

3. Effect of Climate on Egg Production

It has been demonstrated that among all factors affecting egg production, temperature, humidity and light play a major role. An increase in temperature above 270 C, reduces the number of egg laid per year and egg shell thickness.

If temperature is above 270C the shell thickness is reduced and the egg quality is reduced. Of all the parts produced, the egg yolk is the least susceptible to heat stress while the albumen is most susceptible to high relative humidity also lower egg production.

In birds, the control of sexual maturity depends largely on the pattern of photoperiod. Exposing bird to increasing day length is known to hasten sexual maturity while shorter day length delays sexual maturity. Increasing the day length also causes an increase in the number of egg laid per year.

However, beyond certain period of day length, increasing the photoperiod will make the bird photo-refractory i.e. resistant to photoperiod with cessation of reproductive.

Read Also: Factors Affecting Animal Heat Production

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Benadine Nonye is an agricultural consultant and a writer with over 12 years of professional experience in the agriculture industry. - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education - PhD Student in Agricultural Economics and Environmental Policy... Visit My Websites On: 1. Agric4Profits.com - Your Comprehensive Practical Agricultural Knowledge and Farmer’s Guide Website! 2. WealthinWastes.com - For Effective Environmental Management through Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices! Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4Profits TV and WealthInWastes TV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

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