Fish Farming is one of the main aquaculture farming practices of most farmers across the globe prefer because it is profitable and creates a better business opportunity.
Making money in fish farming is easy but with a price! You have to be exceptionally careful when starting a fish farm and follow the right procedure which will make you succeed.
Factors to consider before starting a fish farming business include all the circumstances, details, facts, determinants and influences that contribute to successful fish farming.
Whether you are already into fish farming or still about to start a new one, this article will provide you with the prerequisites which will help you make more money and excel more than you ever expected.
Before you start the business of fish farming, it is very important that you consider gaining enough knowledge because what you know will make you succeed and manage the business better.
There are many online courses on fishery which can help you in the case, there are also fish farms where you can go and learn about fish farming in details.
Learning from a professional farmer if preferred to online training because you can be able to ask questions on some certain issues and also see practically how everything is done from the feeding to the breeding, and more.
No matter the extent of basic and detailed knowledge you have acquired on fish farming, you still have to put some circumstances that will contribute to better results into consideration.
Must I have all the cash needed for fish farming ready before starting it? Generally, it is advisable that you have enough money to give adequate care to your livestock before embarking on raising them. However that u do not have all cash ready should not discourage you from starting.
As long as you know that the rest of the money will be available when needed by the fish, then you can start with 70-75% of the total estimated cost.
It is important to note that the amount quote for each fish does not include the cost of constructing the fish pond.
The cost of the pond will be spread over the production years.
Factors to Consider Before Starting a Fish Farming Business
Some important factors to consider include the following:
1. Influence of Environmental Factors
The environmental factor is the characteristics in the location where your fish farm is situated that impact the survival, operations, and growth of fish. This factor has a great effect on fish farming and fish production no matter where your farm is located.
Several types of research conducted on the effect of environment on fish and shellfish stock provided evidence which reveals that physical marine oceanographic processes in the aquatic environment where fishes are raised vary according to location.
Further studies also show that physical environmental processes, temperature, and river discharge are important environmental connections that can also influence fish production.
Environmental control is a system that is designed to control all the possible environmental factors that affect fish farming business.
Make proper research about fish respiratory irritants and other environmental activities that are hazardous to the health of fish and then avoid exposure to such conditions in order to keep your fishes in good health.
2. Availability of Water And Water Quality
Water should have been the number one factor to be listed because it stands as the most important factor affecting fish performance and the general aquatic production system.
Water is always the key point whenever a fish is mentioned. All fishes no matter the species, size or nature need water for survival. Fishes are not raised without water or water from any sources.
Ensure to construct your fish ponds in an area where there is 24 hours availability of clean water. The two points here are water availability and water quality.
Water availability entails the criteria of ideal water available in large volumes for commercial fish farming and the activities involved. Before you choose a site where you establish ponds, you have to consider the source and quantity of water available for aquaculture facilities.
There should be a thorough investigation of the quality and quantity of water available in the farm before selecting a site for fish farming. Selecting a site with any source of water without considering the quality is risky to you as a fish farmer because you may risk losing all the fishes in the pond due to contaminations.
Water sources used for fish farming and other aquaculture activities have been categories into six (6), namely:
Rivers, streams or lakes
3. Physical Properties Of Water
Water is the major essential to fish farming. Even a layman on the street knows that there is no survival for fish without water.
The water we mean here is not just any type of water. Water used for fish farming MUST pass the physical properties which are important to the growth and production of healthy fishes.
Qualities of water good for fish farming business include normal temperature and concentrations of suspended solids.
Water quality, physical properties monitoring and management all contribute to general health and growth of all kinds and species of fishes available in the whole world.
4. Chemical Properties of Water
Other properties that are important for fish growth are the chemical parameters such as water pH, hardness and alkalinity.
The result from researches shows that most of the verse chemicals and environmental factors associated with certain fish farms are linked to a lack of background information on the source of water used for fish farming.
5. Climatic Factors
The climatic condition of any environment is greatly influenced by the host of interacting factors. Also, the global climate system and any changes that occur within the environment may also influence fisheries.
Climate change affects the fish distribution and the productivity of marine fishes and the freshwater fish species. Coastal fishing communities are always in the front line of climate change when the effect of sea level gets higher.
Again, changes in the pattern of rainfall and water usage impacts on both inland and aquaculture fisheries.
6. Fishing Mortality
Fish mortality means fish death; negative factors that can lead to the end of the business if care is not taken appropriately.
Mortality in fish is a factor used in fisheries population dynamics to give account for the loss of fish in a fish farm that occurred through death.
There are two types of mortality that can occur in fisheries. They are:
i. Natural mortality: This is the type of mortality associated with the removal of fishes in from the pond due to effective causes such as predation, disease, cannibalism, pollution old age and others that are not associated with fishing.
ii. Fishing Mortality: Is the process whereby fishes are removed from the pond due to fishing activities using the fish gear.
Mortality as a fish farming factor affects the extent to which the fishery will operate when not controlled. If fish death (mortality) occurs continually in the fish farm; the business is likely to fold because it will drastically reduce the number of fishes on the farm.
Read Also: How to Control Cannibalism among Fishes
7. Ambient Temperature
Temperature, as we all know, is the state of warmness or coldness of the body. Water temperature is another crucial point that shouldn’t be neglected. It affects the growth of fishes as well as the production.
Unlike human beings which are cold-blooded, fishes are cold-blooded aquatic animals whose body temperature varies with that of a cold environment. Fishes assume approximately the same temperature as their surroundings.
The metabolism that takes place in the body of fishes is greatly influenced by the temperature of the water they live in. There is a certain temperature range considered normal for fish survival.
For instance, the acceptable temperature range for African fishes is approximated between 26 °C to 32 °C.
Generally, on this, fish survival is bounded by a lower and upper-temperature range witching which an optimum temperature for their growth subsist.
When temperature deviates from the best range, there will be reduced tolerance in water quantity and immunology response decrease as well. As a result, a decreased in production or growth may occur or even fish mortality depending on the degree of variation from the optimal temperature.
Fish farming just like every other business has its own challenges, but understand that those are what that will make you strive harder to succeed, fishery most time requires patience and dedication, and with the right steps, you are bound to make enough profits.
We have seen different weather factors that can affect fish behavior, growth, and survival. Specifically, fish behaviors are affected by water temperature, ambient light level, turbidity, barometric pressure and changes in water levels due to the rise and fall of waves.
Conclusively, before you start up a fish farming business you should consider all the factors that can possibly affect the business and the ways to control them to have a profitable outcome.’
Here are some amazing fish farming books to guide and assist you further: