Thursday, July 18, 2024

Feeds and Feedings in Poultry Production

There are a number of terms that should be defined in relation to poultry production before the principles of feeding are discussed further:


This is any feed constituent or group of feed constituents of the same general chemical composition or a pure chemical compound that aids in the support of life. These consist of carbohydrates, protein, minerals, vitamins, and water.

Feed stuff

This is synonymous with feed, food, or fodder although it is broader, covering all materials included in the diet because of their nutritional properties. It includes natural feeds of animal origin, synthetic and other pure nutrients which are added to the natural feeds.


This is a mixture of feed stuff blended/processed in a form that is acceptable to animals. It is merely the carrier of nutrients and potential energy in a ration.


This is a feed/feed mixture used with another feed to improve the nutritive balance of the total ration and it is intended to be fed undiluted as a supplement to other feeds. It could be:

Offered free choice with other parts of the rations separately available. Further diluted and mixed to produce a complete feed.

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A ration

This is an allowance of feed given to an animal over a specified period, e.g. daily ration or weekly ration. It should furnish the entire nutrient required in an adequate amount.


This connotes a feed that is offered to an animal over a non-specified period. It is formulated for special purposes– experimentation, special physiological conditions (sick, production); a ration is part of a diet.

Dry matter

This is made up of inorganic and organic substances. The inorganic matter is composed of minerals or ash. The organic substances consist of combustible material, such as sugar, starch, fat, protein, and fiber.


This is an inorganic constituent present in small quantities in all feeds and all parts of the body. It is a non combustible material.

Nitrogen-free extract

This is made up mostly of starches and sugars. It is used by the body for fuel which furnishes energy and heat.

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Protein-energy ratio

This means the amount of protein in the feed or group of feeds as compared with the combined carbohydrates and fat. When we say a ration has a protein-energy ratio of 1 to 5, we mean that it contains one part of the protein to every five parts of carbohydrates and fat.

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Benadine Nonye is an agricultural consultant and a writer with several years of professional experience in the agriculture industry. - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education - PhD Student in Agricultural Economics and Environmental Policy... Visit My Websites On: 1. - Your Comprehensive Practical Agricultural Knowledge and Farmer’s Guide Website! 2. - For Effective Environmental Management through Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices! Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4Profits TV and WealthInWastes TV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

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