Thursday, July 18, 2024
Pigs

Guide to Proper Pig Housing and Its Equipment

Proper pig housing is required in pig farming business as pigs tends to perform better when housed. Their buildings should be of concrete or with stones due to their rooting nature.

Pigs productivity are more when they are housed in a thermally neutral environment i.e. when the environmental temperature around the pig is consistently between the pig’s lower critical temperature (LCT) and upper critical temperature (UCT).

The pig’s metabolic heat production is then at minimum, and it is neither using feed energy to keep warm, nor reducing feed intake to keep cool.

Reasons for Providing Adequate Housing for Pigs

Protection from other climatic extremes such as direct sun, wind and rain.

Provision of dry conditions which are hygienic and do not predispose the pig to disease as they easily get pneumonia.

Allowance for natural behavioral pattern of the pig as far as possible and minimizing the effect of social dominance.

Provision of accessible food and clean water.

Providing conditions such that good stockman ship can be practiced.

The animals conserve energy, as they do not have to seek food and shelter.

More piglets will survive if they are born in safe, warm and healthy surroundings.

Housing makes good hygiene maintenance easier and contributes to the health of the pigs.

Feeding routines can be more carefully controlled, especially when they are adjusted for different categories of pigs.

Weaning, heat control and service management can be done at the right time and in the right way.

Record keeping and management are easier.

Manure can be easily collected and used for fertilizing land.

General Consideration in Designing a Pig House

Pig housing
Pig House

Right design of house is of paramount importance so that investment is justified by improved productivity.

The land has to be well drained, non-swampy if the land is swampy drainage system should be constructed and the building foundation should be aid with stones and concrete and well elevated.

Read Also : Pig Diseases and their Management

In very cold areas, beddings of dry grass or wood shavings could be provided in their sleeping sties to provide warmth and easy cleaning of the sties, this also helps the pigs look cleaner.

It should be on the outskirts of the settlement away from public utilities like source of drinking water to prevent contamination.

Adequate ventilation should be provided by having enough windows on the building to allow for cross ventilation. This windows may be open or close depending on the need and situation in the environmental temperature.

Most of the breeds of pigs are either exotic or cross breeds they are tolerant to cold. However, if they are taken to the southern humid or hot northern parts, the paramount consideration is generally to ameliorate the effects of excess heat by provision of adequate shade and wallows as a means of coolant to prevent heat stress.

Alternatively, pigs should be sprinkled with water when there is excessive heat. Pigs buildings should be of concrete or with stones due to their rooting nature.

They should be placed in their sites according to their ages and sexes to make for uniform feeding and prevent indiscriminate mating and high in-breeding.

Other important requisites for the penare as follows:

It should not be draughty.

Bright sunshine and rain should not be able to enter.

Temperature inside the pen should not vary too much.

It should be easy to clean.

The floor must be sloping but not slippery.

Work and management should be easy

Provision should be made for storing manure, litter and run-off for later use

In hot areas the best orientation of the building is east-west.

Equipment’s in a Piggery

The following are tools to work with in a pig farm;

Scalpel blades for incision and castration.

Syringes and needles.

Thermometer for taking temperature.

Antiseptics and Disinfectants for cleaning wounds and disinfecting pen.

Restraining ropes (snare) used in restraining pigs during farm operations.

Tail docking forceps.

Cotton wool and bandages for dressing and bandaging of wounds.

Protective clothing like boots, laboratory coats, head wear.

Teeth clippers for cutting piglets, needle teeth.

Feeders and drinkers.

Muzzle for handling mouth during farm operations.

Ear notches, ear tags and tag applicator for individual identification.

Farrowing crate (60x180cm for smaller type breeds and 65x220cm for larger commercial breeds).

What are the reasons for housing pigs adequately?

List five general considerations and five equipment’s when designing a pig house

What are the recommended space requirement for; i) Boars ii) Heavy pigs iii) Weaners.

In summary, you have learnt pigs are housed for some reasons, for designing the houses there are general considerations and equipment to note and based on the class of the pig (boar, dry sow, farrow sow, weaners, heavy pigs etc.) there are recommended space requirements.

In summary, pigs do better when housed, and their buildings should be of concrete or with stones due to their rooting nature. Pigs productivity are more when they are housed in a thermally neutral environment i.e. when the environmental temperature around the pig is consistently between the pig’s lower critical temperature (LCT) and upper critical temperature (UCT).

The pig’s metabolic heat production is then at minimum, and it is neither using feed energy to keep warm, nor reducing feed intake to keep cool. Right design of house is of paramount importance so that investment is justified by improved productivity.

The land has to be well drained, non-swampy and outskirts of the settlement away from public utilities like source of drinking water to prevent contamination. If the land is swampy drainage system should be constructed and the building foundation should be aid with stones and concrete and well elevated.

In very cold areas, beddings of dry grass or wood shavings could be provided in their sleeping sties to provide warmth and easy cleaning of the tiles, this also helps the pigs look cleaner.

Read Also : Waste Generation and Effect of Waste on Environment

Agric4Profits

Benadine Nonye is an agricultural consultant and a writer with several years of professional experience in the agriculture industry. - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education - PhD Student in Agricultural Economics and Environmental Policy... Visit My Websites On: 1. Agric4Profits.com - Your Comprehensive Practical Agricultural Knowledge and Farmer’s Guide Website! 2. WealthinWastes.com - For Effective Environmental Management through Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices! Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4Profits TV and WealthInWastes TV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

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