It is essential that poultry birds are given enough poultry feeding troughs so that all of them can have access to the feeds and also to prevent rushing for feeds which will make the press on one other and eventually death.
A feeding trough for 50 birds is highly recommended which means that you need to calculate that to the number of feeding troughs you will need for 500 birds and so on.
Ideal feeding troughs are determined by the age of the birds. This is to prevent the birds from wasting the feeds; during the first 3weeks to 4weeks of life a flat tray feeder is ideal. After 4 weeks, conical steel feeder is then recommended.
Poultry Feeds Required Nutrients
Wheat: usually is one of the best grains for poultry feeding, although a proportion of course grains in some form should always be included in the ration, along with wheat. In seasons of rust or frost, when wheat is shrunken, more should be ground and fed in mashes and less in the scratch feed. Either hard spring or Durum wheat may be used.
Oats: vary considerably in feeding value, due to difference in hull. They can be fed whole as part of a scratch feed, or in mashes in the crushed, rolled, or finely ground form. If light, sift out the hulls; poor quality oats frequently have so much hull as to be of little use for poultry feed.
Barley: will work well as part of the scratch feed and in mashes in crushed, rolled, or finely ground form. Ordinarily it is not quite as palatable as wheat or oats; still in seasons when these two grains are of poor quality and the barley is fair or good, more can fed in the different forms, or even as boiled or soaked barley, with very good results.
Corn: is a very desirable grain fed whole, cracked or ground. Ripe corn on the cob may be fed to hens and turkeys. Shelled corn may be used with other grains as scratch feed.
Corn chop could be included in any of the dry mash rations listed in this circular. The corn, if not thoroughly dried, should be mixed with the other chop in the mash immediately after grinding.
Millet: (proso or hog millet), where grown, may be used to good advantage in growing, laying, and fattening rations. Millet may compromise up to one-third of the whole grain fed, and up to one-third of the chop mixture in dry mashes.
Rye: is not as palatable as wheat, oats or barley, but can be fed in limited quantities as a scratch feed or in mashes along with two or more of the other grains. In large quantities it is likely to cause digestive disorders.
Flax: is high in protein and fat. A small amount may be fed in the whole or ground form in mashes during the moulting season and fall and winter months. Linseed oil cake meal may also be used.
By-products of grain: (such as wheat middlings, shorts, bran, barley meal, oat flour, oat middlings, and oat feed) have a place in poultry feeding, especially where feed must be bought.
They may be higher in price than the whole grain, and if used should be fed for a specific purpose, such bran, shorts or middlings in growing and laying rations, and oat flour, oat middlings, oat feed, or barley meal in fattening rations.
Skimmilk and Buttermilk are Excellent for all Classes of Poultry but especially valuable for young chicks, laying hens and fattening birds. Milk supplies the vitamin riboflavin which is indispensible to high hatching quality in eggs. As a desirable protein supplement, milk undoubtedly heads the list.
“Concentrates” and “Balancers” are especially prepared supplements put up by feed companies. They should be added to home-grown chopped grains in proportions recommended by the manufacturers.
Fish Oils: (cod liver oil, pilchard oil, etc.) are used in chick rations, in winter laying rations and in rations for producing eggs for hatching, as a source of Vitamins A and D when the supply of green pasture and direct sunshine is limited or lacking.
Standard fish oils for poultry should contain 1,250 units or more of Vitamin A, and 200 A.O.A.C. units or more of Vitamin D, per gram. If fed in dry mash the oil should be mixed first with a small quantity of ground wheat.
Ideal poultry feeding troughs you need
It is essential that birds always have access to clean, fresh water. A simple floor drinker can be made out of a canor drum inverted in a dish or tray with a hole punched about 2.5 cm above the end of the can.
Other kinds of plastic drinkers can be purchased that can either be suspended from the ceiling, and height above the floor adjusted, or sitting on the floor.
Bamboo can be used to make drinkers but you must provide a regular, ample supply of clean water. In larger chicken houses, a 44 gallon (200 litres) drum can be used with a ballcock in a cistern to provide a constant supply of water with a hose connected to the drinkers.
Floor drinkers should be moved regularly as the litter gets wet around the drinkers. Ideally they should sit on a raised bamboo or timber platform.
Drinkers get dirty very quickly particularly in a warm climate. They must be cleaned thoroughly and regularly to prevent disease. This may mean scrubbing them.
Water allocation should meet these requirements:
|100 chicks||0-3 weeks||10 litres/day|
|100 chicks||3-7 weeks||25 litres/day|
|30 layers||Adult||15 litres/day|
Laying hens and meat chickens should have a continuous supply of feed. Any attempt to restrict their feed will give reduced production and a smaller profit. Feed troughs can be made from local material (e.g. bamboo) or made from old 20 litre drums (tube feeder).
The feed drops into a feeding tray just below the drum, as the birds consume their diet. Feeders are either on the floor or suspended from the ceiling and adjusted according to bird age.
Feed troughs can be purchased but they should always have a lid to prevent birds from entering the bin. Floor feeders need to be filledregularly but should not be over-filled resulting in feed wastage.
Adequate trough space should be provided:
|Chicks||0-8 weeks||2.5 cm/bird|
|Birds||9-16 weeks||7.5 cm/bird|
|Layers (floor)||4.0 cm/hen|
|Layers (cages)||7.5 cm/hen|
|For broilers||3 feeders/100 birds|
|For layers||4 feeders/100 hens|
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