Sunday, July 14, 2024

How to Make a Balanced Feed Formulation for Cattle, Sheep and Goats

Animal feed formulation including cattle, sheep and goat feeds requires in-depth knowledge of animal nutrition, particularly the nutrient requirements and the nutrient composition of the ingredients.

It also requires nutritionists to know whether using certain proportions of some ingredients will impact on issues such as feed flow through the mill, pellet quality of the diet, response of the diet to feed additives, or gut health of the animal.

In some parts of the world, considerations such as the colour, smell and particle size of the feed are viewed as important by the feed buyer, despite that these factors may have little influence on the nutritional quality of the feed.

Ultimately, feed formulation is about economics; for some operations, it probably means the best feed conversion efficiency of the animal, whereas for others it perhaps means least cost per unit of product output.

The above methods mentioned on the formulation of feeds can be effectively applied provided that the pre-requisite is being provided and to that effect, this work provides some requirements to enable efficient formulation and thus livestock keepers can apply the methods on the data provided in the quest to provide good food with adequate nutritional values for a say class of livestock.

1. Feed Formulation for Cattle

How to Make a Balanced Feed Formulation for Cattle, Sheep and Goats

The final step of beef cattle nutrition is correcting nutrient deficiencies. The first approach to correct nutrient deficiencies is to establish an accurate description of the cattle being fed.

Once an accurate description of the cattle is established, their nutrient requirements can then be determined from nutrient requirement tables. The next step is to determine the feeds available for use.

Read Also: Guide to Proper Handling of Animal Feed Raw Materials

List their composition on a dry matter basis from a composition table or a chemical analysis. Now the amounts of the feeds necessary to balance the ration can be determined.

Three common methods to ration balancing include the Pearson Square, substitution formulation and computer-assisted formulation based on substitution or linear programming for least-cost formulation.

2. Feed Formulation for Sheep and Goats

How to Make a Balanced Feed Formulation for Cattle, Sheep and Goats

Goats and sheep are small ruminants that require slightly different feeding patterns and ingredients from cattle but the methods of feed formulation are the same.

Sample Feed Formula for Kid & Lamb Starter

Ingredient Quantity (KG) Total 100

Maize = 37

Groundnut cake = 15

Wheat bran20
Mineral mix2.5

Sample Feed Formula for Goat & Sheep Finisher Feed

How to Make a Balanced Feed Formulation for Cattle, Sheep and Goats

Ingredient Quantity (KG)

Total100 kg
Maize 15 Groundnut cake 37
Wheat offal35
Mineral mix2

Sample Feed Formula for Nursing Goat & Sheep

Ingredient TotalQuantity(KG) 100
Wheat offal37
Mineral mix2

Sample Feed Formula for Pregnant Goat &Sheep

Wheat offal.42
Mineral mix2

How to prepare a Mineral Mix for Goat and Sheep. If you want to prepare the mineral mix at home rather than buying it, then follow the composition below.

Sterilized bone meal = 35%

Limestone = 45%

Iodized salt = 20%

Copper Sulphate = 22 g/tonne of mineral mix

Ferrous Carbonate = 11 g/tonne of mineral mix

Zinc Oxide = 11 g/tonne of mineral mix

Read Also: How to Grow Sugar Cane Minecraft in a Sugar Cane Farm Minecraft


Benadine Nonye is an agricultural consultant and a writer with several years of professional experience in the agriculture industry. - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education - PhD Student in Agricultural Economics and Environmental Policy... Visit My Websites On: 1. - Your Comprehensive Practical Agricultural Knowledge and Farmer’s Guide Website! 2. - For Effective Environmental Management through Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices! Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4Profits TV and WealthInWastes TV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

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