Wednesday, April 24, 2024

Methods of Mushroom Project Substrate Sterilization

This step is where we steam substrates in order to kill germs and any other fungi that may compete with our mushrooms for the nutrients and substrate. Therefore steaming your substrates before use if very neccessary. Below is a complete guide for your substrate sterilization.

Mushroom Project Substrate Sterilization

a) Weigh the substrate when still dry; spread it on a table or polythene sheet which is spread on the floor.
– Take the following and add to the substrate in the following ratios:
– 1% of lime or gypsum of the dry weight of the substrate for control of Ph, aeration and acceleration of colonization of the substrate,
– 5% supplement – cotton seed cake or sunflower seed cake or soy bean meal cake of dry substrate to improve the protein and mineral nutrients to the substrate.
– 5% of molasses to improve the nutritional value of the substrate in terms of carbohydrates. Put water in a basin and mix all the above thoroughly to form a solution.

b) Sprinkle the solution on the substrate and mix it thoroughly.
– Add in more clean water till the whole substrate is wet.
– Apply the squeeze test.
Only a few water drops should come out of substrate, and then know it’s ready for use.
– Stack or pack the substrate in empty polythene -bags either black or clear and close the top tightly using a string – sisal twine or improvise.
– Put a wooden rack ,or bricks,stones etc with a height of around twenty 6 inches at the bottom of a drum,
– Fill water in the drum up to the height of the rack,
– Pack the filled bags inside the drum placing them on the rack. Avoid the tubes from touching the water for we need the substrate to sterilize by use of steam
– Tightly Close the drum using a lockable lid,or sack or anything and punch a small hole at the top to allow the excess steam to escape via it.

c) Boil the substrate until you start seeing steam coming out of hole profusely
– Start counting around 40-45 or so minutes from the time you see the steam.
– Reduce the amount of heat being supplied to the drum for 15minutes.
– Let it cool before you remove the sterilized materials.

❌Caution – Let the drum cool down completely before you open the lid to avoid being burned by the steam.

Read Also: How to Construct a Mushroom Farming House

d) Remove them from the drum and let them cool down overnight. They should be stored in sterile environment to avoid contamination.
– The steam should atleast constantly take place for 4 good hours.

Mushroom Project Substrate Sterilization
A mushroom farm

e) Spawning
Select your working area which should not have dark alleys that are good breeding grounds for bacteria and fungi. The area should have controlled air/current flow.
– Take the substrate, spread it on a sterilized table or polythene sheet by use of methylated spirit or surgical spirit or jik and inoculate it with the spawn.

f) Spawn application should be 2 kgs of spawn to l5 kg of dry weight of substrate.
Thereafter, the inoculated substrate is then compacted in the polythene tube and close the top by use of a sisal string.
OR another way you can put a ring on the opening of the bag, cover with a soft paper like old news papers and tied around… likewise instead of paper u can use cotton.

– Perforate holes round the tube. The holes should be 2 inches in diameter with a distance of 4 inches from one another.
– Make sure there are no air pockets in the poly bag.
– The stock them in a dark room for a period of 4-6weeks
– After 4-6weeks days, increase the humidity in the fruiting house by pouring clean water on the flour for it to start vaporizing to humidify the room.
– Do not spray water in the room for it will contaminate it. You can put water holding material lile charcoal dust, or put water jnto bansins etc.

  • After transferring them into the fruiting room, vapourising the room can be done 3-4 times per week depending on the temperatures.

g) Your mushrooms must be emerging already at this moment.and ready for harvesting 4-5days after transferring them into the light room or fruiting room/chamber.

– You should be able to harvest for 3months on average.
– Ensure to harvest before they are fully grown. Continue pouring water on the flour and the cycle will repeat itself 4-5 times flushes. This will also depend on the amount of nutrients in the substrate.

– And 100 2kg gardens should be able to give you atleast 50-100g from each bag a day,if they are fruting well. Hence expect around 4-10 or more or less kgs per a good harvest day. Harvest depends alot on conditions.

Read Also: 12 Management Tips for better Poultry Performance Potential


Benadine Nonye is an agricultural consultant and a writer with over 12 years of professional experience in the agriculture industry. - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education - PhD Student in Agricultural Economics and Environmental Policy... Visit My Websites On: 1. - Your Comprehensive Practical Agricultural Knowledge and Farmer’s Guide Website! 2. - For Effective Environmental Management through Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices! Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4Profits TV and WealthInWastes TV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

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