Pig Housing Design and Requirements

Pigs do better when housed, and their buildings should be of concrete or stones due to their rooting nature. Pigs’ productivity is more when they are housed in a thermally neutral environment i.e. when the environmental temperature around the pig is consistently between the pig’s lower critical temperature (LCT) and upper critical temperature (UCT).

The pig’s metabolic heat production is then at a minimum, and it is neither using feed energy to keep warm nor reducing feed intake to keep cool. Other considerations for pig comfort include:

Protection from other climatic extremes such as direct sun, wind, and rain,

Provision of dry conditions which are hygienic and do not predispose the pig to disease as they easily get pneumonia.

Allowance for a natural behavioral pattern of the pig as far as possible and minimizing the effect f social dominance

Provision of accessible food and clean water;

Providing conditions such that good stockmanship can be practiced.

Effective disposal of waste matter.

Read Also: Pig Housing: General Considerations and Design

General Consideration of Designing Pig House

The right design of the house is of paramount importance so that investment is justified by improved productivity.

The land has to be well-drained, non-swampy, and outskirts of the settlement away from public utilities like sources of drinking water to prevent contamination.

If the land is swampy drainage system should be constructed and the building foundation should be aided with stones and concrete and well elevated.

In very cold areas, beddings of dry grass or wood shavings could be provided in their sleeping sites to provide warmth and easy cleaning of the sites, this also helps the pigs look cleaner.

Adequate ventilation should be provided by having enough windows on the building to allow for cross ventilation. These windows may be open or closed depending on the need and situation in the environmental temperature.

Most of the breeds available are either exotic or cross breeds they are tolerant to cold. Pigs’ buildings should be of concrete or with stones due to their rooting nature. They should be placed in their sites according to their ages and sexes to make for uniform feeding and prevent indiscriminate mating and high inbreeding.

Some examples of pigs housing include:

  • Danish swine house
  • Traditional swine house
  • Field housing

Danish swine house: – A fattening house with a central feeding passage along the walls.

Traditional Pig House: – for a small farmer, a series of simple pens with an outside run attached, may be sufficient, swine require warm dry housing as they easily get pneumonia.

The floor should be well concrete and the unit not be too near the dwelling house of the farmer because of the smell ad flies.

Field housing: – This can be a simple shelter made of wood. The shelter is in a field and the swine have free range. Generally, it is not advisable to keep swine outside in the tropics as they are then subject to African swine fever and kidney worms.

Read Also: Proper Ways of Feeding Pigs

Table: Recommended space requirements for pigs

Class of swineArea
Boars9 m2
Dry sows2 m long x 0.64 m wide
StallsAs for stalls put similar
Cubiclesexercise
Yardsarea
Farrowing accommodation3-4 m2 per sow
Pen including crate 
Fattening/follow-on (including6.2m2
creep area)10m2
Weaners 
Cages (per pig)0.2m2 lying area + 0.2m2
Yards (per pig)slatted area
Porkers0.7-0.9m2
(pen, including dunging area) 
Baconers0.73m2 per pig
(pen including dunging area) 
 0.93m2 per pig
Heavy pigs 
Trough space (par pig) 
Fasteners 
Maiden gilts, sows0.2-0.3m2
 0.35m2

Read Also: Recommended Feed Formula for Piglets (Baby Pigs)

Pig Equipment

The following are tools to work with on a pig farm;

Scalpel blades for incision and castration

Syringes and needles

Thermometer for taking temperature

Antiseptics and Disinfectants for cleaning wounds and  disinfecting pen

Restraining ropes (snare) used in restraining pigs during farm operations.

Tail docking forceps

Cotton wool and bandages for dressing and bandaging wounds

Protective clothing like boots, laboratory coats, headwear

Teeth clippers for cutting piglets, needle teeth.

Feeders and drinkers

Muzzle for handling mouth during farm operations

Ear notches and ear tags and tag applicator for individual identification.

In conclusion, regardless of the system of production, anyone considering pig production on a large scale should investigate the marketing and processing facilities available and obtain expert advice before embarking on the operation.

The system of pig production is diverse there is the traditional method of rearing in large parts of the tropics which is the simplest and cheapest. The intensive system on the other hand entails considerable capital and specialized management skills.

The integrated systems involve the production of pigs with other enterprises like fish farming, production of algae, methane gas generation, ducks, and vegetable production. Such types of operations enhance the efficiency of resource use and increase output for the overall operation.

Pigs do better when housed, and their buildings should be of concrete or stones due to their rooting nature.

Pigs’ productivity is more when they are housed in a thermally neutral environment i.e. when the environmental temperature around the pig is consistently between the pig’s lower critical temperature (LCT) and upper critical temperature (UCT).

The pig’s metabolic heat production is then at a minimum, and it is neither using feed energy to keep warm nor reducing feed intake to keep cool.

The right design of the house is of paramount importance so that investment is justified by improved productivity.

The land has to be well-drained, non-swampy, and outskirts of the settlement away from public utilities like sources of drinking water to prevent contamination.

If the land is swampy drainage system should be constructed and the building foundation should be aided with stones and concrete and well elevated.

In very cold areas, beddings of dry grass or wood shavings could be provided in their sleeping sites to provide warmth and easy cleaning of the sites, this also helps the pigs look cleaner.

Most of the breeds of pigs are either exotic or cross breeds they are tolerant of cold. Alternatively, pigs should be sprinkled with water when there is excessive heat.

Read Also: Pig Production Systems (System of Pig Production)

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Benadine Nonye

An Agric. Consultant & a Writer (With over 12 years of professional experience in the agricultural industry) - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education... Visit My Websites On: Agric4profits.com - It's All About Agriculture, The Way Forward! Agric4profit.com - The Most Reliable Global Agricultural Forum! Agric4profit.com.ng - The Most Reliable Nigeria's Agricultural Job Board! TheAgriPedia.com - For Everything Premium Agriculture! WealthinWastes.com - For Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices. Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4ProfitsTV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

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