Pig rearing also known as pig farming is one of the lucrative businesses in agriculture under livestock husbandry because pigs give birth to piglet’s at large numbers. The following are recommended levels and maximum inclusion rates of protein source ingredients in the rations for pigs.
Soy Beans and By-Products for Pig Feeds
Soy protein has a very high lysine content, which make this protein source very valuable. It also contains an Anti-Trypsin Factor (ATF), a growth stunting component that disturbs the protein digestion. It can be eliminated by toasting the soybean. It’s crude protein content ranges from 36%- 43 % depending on the varieties and other environmental factors.
Sow can take up to 15%, Fatteners not more than 10%, to avoid soft bacon weaners and piglets can take up to 10%.
Soy bean meal: This is a byproduct after oil extraction by chemical method and its price is always higher than of soy bean. It has a high protein content of good quality (about 45%), additionally a high lysine content (2.5- 3%) all other oil seed by products are far low.
Sows and fatteners can take as much as is needed to meet their protein and lysine requirements (10-30%). For sows the soy protein may be some animal protein; fatteners do not need animal protein.
Soy bean meal contain some sugars that piglets find hard to digest. In cases of much diarrhea it is suggested to keep the soy bean meal below 15% and add a synthetic lysine. Also, piglets must have some animal protein in their feed since Soy bean meal has low in methionine amino acid.
Cotton seed cake/ expeller: The CP of it is around 35%. It has moderate amount of lysine and methionine amino acids. Pigs should not take more than 10% of a good quality, due to the high content of crude fiber, and the negative influence on bacon color
Sunflower cake; it has about 29% CP, and high content of methionine (1.1%). Generally, no more than 10%, due to high crude fiber and soft fat property.
Coconut cake: This has crude protein level of 21%, high level of aflatoxin as well as crude fiber.
Sows take maximum 7.5%, for its crude fiber rate. But it has a positive effect on fat quality, and it is very tasty. Piglets preferably none; they do not tolerate it very well.
Products of Animal Origin
The nutritional quality of animal protein is higher than that of vegetable protein. Most animal proteins are rich in minerals and vitamins.
Fish meal: it’s unfortunate that the protein content of it varies significantly depending on a number of factors some of which have remained un disclosed! Disclosed factors include the source, the storage and preservation methods to mention a few because some people go ahead and adulterate it.
The CP of fish meal ranges from 50% to 75% and therefore need great attention. It has reasonable amount of lysine (about 5%).
Sows can take maximum 5%. Fish meal has a positive effect on sow fertility. Fatteners can take maximum 5%. more may put a fish flavor on the meat. As a matter of fact, fatteners can do very well on a complete vegetable feed. Piglets should get 1-5% fish meal if no other animal proteins are added.
Blood meal: This is rich in protein, including a lot of lysine (8.5%), rich in Fe, poor in Ca and P
In compound feed, no more than 2% should be mixed. High level of it affects taste and appetite, and may develop cannibalism.
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