Wednesday, July 17, 2024

Soybean Cyst Nematode Disease on Beans Production: Identification & Control

The plant-parasitic nematode soybean cyst nematode (SCN) can infect and cause yield loss on dry edible beans. SCN occurs in multiple areas in the growing region and continues to spread.

SCN survives in eggs, often protected inside a cyst. After the eggs hatch, the nematode goes through a series of molts. In the life cycle, second-stage juveniles infect the root to form adult females. Female worms feed on the root, mate, and expand in size as eggs inside develop.

Each female contains approximately 200 eggs. Only once the female worm has expanded is she visible with the unaided eye and appears as a tiny, white, lemon-shaped cyst. Through time, the female turns brown and dies, making visual identification again nearly impossible.

Under ideal conditions, the life cycle can repeat approximately every 24 days. In our growing region, the life cycle is thought to usually repeat two or three times in the season.

SCN is spread in soil by any means soil moves. Commonly, SCN is moved within fields, among fields, and long distances in soil on equipment. SCN also is moved easily by tillage, floodwaters, wind, birds, and any human or animal that moves soil.

Read Also: The 5 Physical Soil Factors Affecting Crop Production

Soybean Cyst Nematode Disease Management

Limit soil movement: Cleaning soil off equipment before movement into adjacent fields can help limit the spread of SCN and other pathogens and pests. This is particularly important when equipment is moved long distances. Make sure that any equipment purchased from areas outside the growing region is cleaned in the area where they are purchased.

Soil sampling: Soil sampling is the more effective way to test for the presence of SCN. Similarly, it is the only way to determine the level of infestation (egg counts).

Soil sampling for SCN is different than soil sampling for fertility. In fields where the possibility of SCN occurring is not known, focus sampling on areas where SCN is most likely to be introduced, such as field entrances (via equipment), shelter belts (via wind), low spots (via flooding) or areas where SCN is likely to be established, such as alkaline areas or unexplained low-yielding spots.

Genetic resistance: Breeders and pathologists are working actively on incorporating resistance into dry edible beans.

Additionally, susceptibility to SCN varies among market classes, with kidney beans allowing the highest reproduction of SCN (they are the most susceptible) and black beans allowing the lowest (less susceptible). Consult the most current cultivar information when considering genetic resistance.

Crop rotation: Soybeans and dry edible beans are the two crops grown in our region that are hosts to SCN. We recommend rotation to other crops for at least two consecutive years.

Weed control: Several weeds in our region allow SCN to reproduce and increase, making weed control critical for disease management.

Control volunteers: Volunteer dry edible beans and soybeans will allow SCN to increase.

Seed treatments: Nematicide seed treatments may be available. Limited efficacy data on dry edible beans exist.

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Benadine Nonye is an agricultural consultant and a writer with several years of professional experience in the agriculture industry. - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education - PhD Student in Agricultural Economics and Environmental Policy... Visit My Websites On: 1. - Your Comprehensive Practical Agricultural Knowledge and Farmer’s Guide Website! 2. - For Effective Environmental Management through Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices! Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4Profits TV and WealthInWastes TV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

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