Monday, July 15, 2024
General Agriculture

Standard Organization and Feed Standard

Feed standards also referred to as feeding standards are statements or quantitative descriptions or tables listing the amounts of 1 or more nutrients needed by different species of animals for specific productive functions. They are usually expressed in either quantities of nutrients required per day or concentrations of percentage of a diet.

The first expression is used for animals which are given exact quantities of a feed during a 24hr period e.g. cattle and sheep while the second expression is used where rations are fed ad libitum i.e. without limitation on the time at which the feed is consumed.

Uses of Feeding Standards

Feedings standards are statements of nutritional requirements of animals. They provide a useful base from which rations could be formulated or estimate feed requirements of animals. They are also useful in farm budgeting. They should not, however, be considered as the final answer on nutrient needs but should be used as a guide.

Quantitatively, energy is the most important item in an animal‘s diets and all feeding standards and rations formulations are based on some measure of energy with additional inputs on proteins, vitamins and minerals.

These allowances included safety margins for ration formulation. Safety margins could be the extra feed fed to animals that are group fed as making absolute calculations based on individuals recommended feed intakes might result in insufficient feeds the rates of feeding differ. These feedings standards are subject to the environment hence feeding standards in one place may not be adequate for another.

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Limitations of Feeding Standards

Standard Organization and Feed Standard

Feeding standards may provide a useful base from which the rations are formulated or estimation of feed requirements are made for animals.

They should not however be considered as the final answer on nutrient needs as NRC and ARC recommendations were made for the temperate zones.

Since NRC tables recommended values known as requirements figures and not necessarily the recommended allowances, it is sometimes necessary to adjust values to contain margins of safety in order to maximize production and ensure good health and profitability.

Limitations associated with feeding standards are:

1. Feeding standards does not also take into consideration also the beneficial effects of feed additives.

2. It also excludes what management feeds preparatory methods and feeding procedures to animal‘s needs or efficiency of food utilization.

3. Feeding standards do not take into consideration the effect of variation within and between species of animals.

4. It is well known that animal requirements vary considerably even within a relatively uniform herd, e.g. a protein intake that may be satisfactory for most animals in a given situation will probably not be sufficient for a few of the rapid gainers or high producers on the other hand some of the herd will probably be overfed.

5. Cognizance is not taken of breed effect. Breeds nutrients metabolism and requirements differ.

6. The many variables that may alter nutrient needs and nutrient utilization in animals are usually difficult to include quantitatively in feeding standards even when feed quality is well known.

In summary, feeding standards provide a guideline for feed formulation. Caution should however be exercised in using the values absolutely without taking cognizance of variations between the locations where the standards were set and the place of use.

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Heat for instance produced in animal bodies in the tropics generally have to be dissipated whereas it requires conservation in the temperate zone. The energy requirement of the temperate and tropical areas would therefore not be the same. Feedings standards remain vital instruments in ration however, should not be considered as the final answer on nutrient needs but rather used as a guide.

Allowances should be included for safety margins for ration formulation. Economics of livestock feeding must be taken into consideration when these tables are used. Some of the limitations in its use are its inconsideration for climatic and stress variations, effect of feed additives and breed effect. It is challenging to factor in all possible variations when setting feeding standards.

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Benadine Nonye is an agricultural consultant and a writer with several years of professional experience in the agriculture industry. - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education - PhD Student in Agricultural Economics and Environmental Policy... Visit My Websites On: 1. - Your Comprehensive Practical Agricultural Knowledge and Farmer’s Guide Website! 2. - For Effective Environmental Management through Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices! Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4Profits TV and WealthInWastes TV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

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