The Historical Origin of Cultivated Crops

All cultivated crops / plants were domesticated from their wild species. However, the exact time and place of origin and the true ancestry of many crops are still as highly speculative as the origin of man. Man has domesticated some crop species that met his needs before the dawn of recorded history.

Most of the domesticated crops were introduced into new areas far from their centers of origin by migrating human populations in prehistoric as well as in recorded times. As a result, both indigenous and introduced crops are grown everywhere in the world.

1) Centres of Origin of Cultivated Crops

The centres of origin of both agriculture and culture were in populated areas favored by a more equitable climate.

Nicolai Ivanovic Vavilov (1926) concluded that a centre of origin was characterized by dominant alleles while towards the periphery of the centre, the frequency of recessive alleles increased and the genetic diversity decreased.

He reported the following centres of origin:

  • China
  • India/Indo-Malayan
  • Central Asia
  • Near East
  • Mediterranean Sea coastal and adjacent regions
  • Ethiopia or Abyssina
  • South Mexico and Central America
  • South America (Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile etc.)
The Origin of Cultivated Crops

2) Contribution of the Different Centres of Cultivated Crops

The following are the important crops that originated in the different centres. Some crops may have two centres of origin, (primary and secondary centres of origin).

2i) Chinese centre

China is one of the richest centres of crop origin contributing to many important crops such as Brassica campestris and related species, Camellia sinenses, Colocasia esculenta, Corchorus sinensis, Glycine max, Panicum miliaceum, Raphanus sativus and Setaria italica. It is secondary center for Oriza sativa spp. Japonica, Zea mays and other crops.

2ii) Indo-Malayan Centre

This region is important for such crops such as Cocos nucifera, Colocasia esculenta, Dioscoria app., wild Oryza spp. and Saccharum officinalis.

Read Also: Sowing Guide for Different Kind of Crops

2iii) Indian Centre

Important crops from this center include; Oryza sativa, Phaseolus mungo, Piper spp., Saccharum sinensis, Vigna sinensis and Cucurbita sativa.

2iv) Central Asia Centre

Among the important crops of this center include; Allium cepa, Daucus carota, lathyrus sativa, Spinacea oleracea and vicia faba.

2v) Near Eastern Centre

This is the center of origin of Brassica olearacea, Hordeum Vulgare, Lens esculanta, Medicago spp., Secale spp., Triticum spp., Vicia sativa and Vitis vinifera

2vi) Mediterranean Centre

Many field crops have been domesticated in this region; Avena spp., Beta vulgaris, Brassica napus, B. oleracea, Lathyrus spp., Olea europaea, Raphanus sativas, Trifolium spp. Vitis vinifera.

2vii) Ethiopian or Africa Centre

Brassica juncea, Ceiba pentandra, Coffea spp., Cola spp., Cucumis spp., Gossypium., Hibiscus spp., Lablab purpureaus, Oryza spp., Pennisetum spp., Phoenix spp., Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Setaria spp., Sorghum bicolor and Vigna unguiculata are all important crops of Africa centre of crops origin.

Related: The Complete List of Indigenous Crops of Africa

2viii) Central American and Mexican Centre

Few important crops were domesticated in this region; Agave spp., Capsicum spp., Gossypium spp., Ipomoea batatas, Phaseolus spp. and Zea mays.

2ix) South American Centre on Cultivated Crops

This centre account for most of the tuberous crops such as Solanum spp., Oxalis tuberose and Ullucus tuberous. Amaranthus spp., Arachis hypogaea, Capsicum spp., Lycopersicum spp., Lupinus spp., Manihot esculenta, Nicotina spp., Phaseolus spp., Solanum spp. and Theobromw cacao all have their origin from this centre. This centre also serves as secondary centre of diversity of Zea mays.

Related: Effect of Tropical Climate on Animal Parasites, Vectors and Diseases

Read Also: Systems of Crop Production

Read Also: Brief History and Roles of Animal Production in Nigeria

Read Also: Strategies for Improving Cattle Production

Read Also: Complete List of Animals Feed Raw Materials and Their Uses

Read Also: 21 Amazing Importance of Water (H2O) to the Body

Read Also: 10 Amazing Health Benefits of Cucumber Fruit

Read Also: Recommended Equipments and Tools Needed in Snail Farming Business

Read Also: Mechanism of Animal Body Defense against Stress

Read Also: 7 Amazing Health Benefits of Cherries

Read Also: 22 High Fiber Foods we have and their Contents

Read Also: 21 Amazing Nutritional and Health Benefits of Orange Juice

Do you have further questions or any other form of contribution? then kindly use the comment box below for all your contributions.

You are also encouraged to kindly share this information with friends that also need to know this as we can not reach everyone at the same time. Thank you

Copyright Notice: This post belongs to and is not allowed to be copied by other sites. Kindly Click Here to visit our Home page for more amazing related articles. Thank you for reading.

Do you have any questions, suggestions, or other contributions? Kindly use the comment box provided below for all your contributions. You are also encouraged to please kindly share this article with others you feel can benefit from this information if found useful enough as we may not be able to reach everyone at the same time. Thank you so much for sharing!

Have you visited our Market Place Today? Follow this link to visit Market Place now to check out our affordable products & services that might interest you and solve your current needs at a very cheap price.

Benadine Nonye

An Agric. Consultant & a Writer (With over 12 years of professional experience in the agricultural industry) - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education... Visit My Websites On: - It's All About Agriculture, The Way Forward! - The Most Reliable Global Agricultural Forum! - The Most Reliable Nigeria's Agricultural Job Board! - For Everything Premium Agriculture! - For Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices. Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4ProfitsTV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *