Saturday, June 15, 2024
General Agriculture

Trends in Crop Production Nationally and Globally

There are certain trends associated in crop production both nationally and globally. Therefore, let’s have a good look at the trends in crop production both nationally and globally.

Here are certain Trends in Crop Production Nationally and Globally including Fodder Production:

1. Cereals

World cereal production in 1999 is forecast at 1870 million tons (including milled rice). While on the supply side, the estimates are becoming firmer, the demand-related issues have yet to be determined.

Global cereal utilization in crop production 1999/2000 is forecast to rise only slightly, just less than one percent. Overall, the growth in direct food consumption of cereals is expected to keep pace with population increase.

Nigeria for instance with a total cereal production of 18 million tones representing only 1% of the world cereal as reported by the food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation (FAO) year book of 2002 and presented in tab.1.1 and fig.1.1.

Table 1.1 Cereal production in Nigeria 1990-2000 in 000, metric tones

Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Fonio 65 72 78 81 93 108 125 127 131 134 133
Maize 5104 5142 5223 5309 5426 5472 4273 4200 3884 3965 3999
Millet 4778 4560 4367 4850 5007 5107 5356 5487 5596 5603 5914
Rice Paddy 1208 1652 1664 1564 1714 1796 1784 2048 2044 2191 2199
Sorghum 4185 5538 5474 5605 5738 6095 6191 6589 6635 6678 6885
Wheat 60 50 30 14 15 20 23 25 49 50 52
Cereals Total 15400 17014 16836 17423 17993 18598 17752 18476 18339 18621 19182
Source FAO year book 2002

In sub-Saharan Africa, 1999 was another disappointing year in terms of agricultural output, as overall agricultural production lagged behind population growth rates for the third consecutive year.

Output increased by 2.1 percent in 1999, after increasing by 0.4 and 2.3 percent in 1997 and 1998, respectively. In Nigeria, production growth slowed from more than 4 percent in 1998 to slightly less than 3 percent.

Read Also: Historical Development of Crop Production

The preliminary estimates for 2000 suggest no improvement in the sluggish performance of the last few years and overall agricultural production appears to have expanded by only 0.5 percent.

Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Exports-Qty Mt 3 270 0 56697 82600 76218 2000 44000 46757 46757
Exports-Val 1000$ 2 98 0 3673 8550 8352 180 3960 4250 4250
Imports-Qty Mt 476920 813977 1073019 1712290 1178072 1022942 1259345 1882181 2132391 2226259
Imports-Val 1000$ 113368 186010 233612 351818 229600 210274 287572 460602 473796 509115
(Source FAO year book 2002)

The steady rise in the imports and decline in export of cereal crops in Nigeria from 1990 to 2000 as is evidenced in tab. 1.2 and fig 1.2. These are direct indications that food crop production in the country is lagging behind the demand for demand for food.

The rapid increase in the Nigeria population (3.5%) annually which is considered among the highest in the world has necessitated the need to massively import food to feed the teaming population.

Agricultural production within the same period recorded a modest growth rate of 1.5%, but the growth is mostly associated with cassava production which is currently enjoying a boom.

This scenario of massive importation of cereals and sharp decline in export could be attributed not only to growth in population and stagnation of internal production levels but also on other equally important factors such as natural and socio-economic factors.

Natural factors in form of drought and flooding that affected the major crop producing areas of the country within the reported period. Drought which affected the Northern Savanna zone where the bulk of country’s cereals is produced, thereby, leads to shortages of major foodstuff which necessitated massive importation of cereals to supplement the shortfall.

The growth of poultry industry in the country also lead to increased demand for cereals to be used in the production of feeds, this triggered massive importation of maize to be processed into poultry feeds.

The shift in government policy that do not accord food production the priority it deserved in terms of adequate funding and supply of needed inputs to sustain the current production levels.

The fiscal and monetary effected food production especially cereals in the country by making importation of maize to be processed into poultry feeds.

Lack of stability in the farm prices and poor marketing system of major cereal crop in the country discourage farmers from making investment to produce more. These and many more socio-economic factors have contributed to the present scenario of massive food importation by Nigeria.

2. Cassava Production

Nigerian cassava production is by far the largest in the world; a third more than production in Brazil and almost double the production of Indonesia and Thailand.

Cassava production in other African countries, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda appears small in comparison to Nigeria’s substantial output.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in Rome (FAO, 2004a) estimated 2002 cassava production in Nigeria to be approximately 34 million tons. The trend for cassava production reported by the Central Bank of Nigeria mirrored the FAO data until 1996 and thereafter it rises to the highest estimate of production at 37 million tons in 2000 (FMANR, 1997; Central Bank of Nigeria).

The third series provided by the Projects Coordinating Unit PCU (PCU, 2003) had the most conservative estimate of production at 28 million tons in 2002. PCU data collates state level data provided by the ADP offices in each state.

Comparing the output of various crops in Nigeria, cassava production ranks first, followed by yam production at 27 million tons in 2002, sorghum at 7 million tons, millet at 6 million tons and rice at 5 million tons (FAO, 2004a.)

Expansion of cassava production under crop production has been relatively steady since 1980 with an additional push between the years 1988 to 1992 owing to the release of improved IITA varieties.

Read Also: The Complete Classification of Crops

By zone, the North Central zone produced over 7 million tons of cassava a year between 1999 to 2002. south south produces over 6 less than 6 million tons a year. The North West and North East are small by comparison at 2 and 0.14 million tons respectively ( Table 1.3).

Table 1.3 Cassava Production by Nigeria geographical zones

2000-2002 (tons)

Regions 2000 2001 2002
South West 4 993 380 5 663 614 5 883 805
South South 6 268 114 6 533 944 6 321 674
South East 5 384 130 5 542 412 5 846 310
North West 2 435 211 2 395 543 2 340 000
North Central 7 116 920 7 243 970 7 405 640
North East 165 344 141 533 140 520
Total 26 363 099 27 521 016 27 938 049

On a per capital basis, North Central is the highest producing region at 720kg/per person in 2002, followed by South East (560kg), South South (470kg), South West (340kg), North West (100kg) and North East (10kg).

National per capital production of cassava is 320kg/per person. Benue and Kogi state in the North Central Zone are the hargest producers of cassava in the country, while Cross River, Akwa Ibom, Rivers and Delta state dominate cassava production in the South South.

Ogun, Ondo, and Oyo dominate in the South West and Enugu and Imo dominate production in the South East. Kaduna state alone in the North West is comparable in output to many of the states in the Southern regions at almost 2 million tonnes a year. The production in the North East is currently very little.

Table 1.4 Ranking of Nigeria in the World production of some field crops in 2005

Commodity Nigeria World Ranking in the world
Cassava 41,565.000 MT 208,559,340 MT 1
Yams 34,000.000 MT 44,276,130 MT 1
Cowpeas 2,815000 MT 22,880,290 MT 1
Melon seeds 451,000.000 MT 691,605.00 MT 1
Taro 5,068000 MT 11,538,705 MT 1
Citrus fruits 3,545, 841.00 MT 6,999,186 MT 1
Green Maize 4,779000 MT 9,216,770.00 MT 2
Millet 6,282000 MT 30,522,860 MT 2
Sorghum 8,028000 MT 59,153,380 MT 2
Okra 730,000 MT 5,357.927 MT 2
Groundnuts in shell 3,478.000 MT 37,763.330 MT 3
Sweet potatoes 3,205.000 MT 123,271.111 MT 3
Papaya 834,040.00 MT 6,666.540 MT 3
Cashew nuts 594,000. MT 2,864.270 MT 4
Cocoa beans 366,000 MT 3,924.770 MT 4
Ginger 110,000 MT 1,270.400 MT 4
Vegetables 4,285,000 MT 261,732.740 MT 5
Pineapple 976,920,000 MT 17,692.310 MT 6
Sesame seed 100,000 MT 3,322.080 MT 6
Source FAO year book 2005

According to FAO year book 2005, Nigeria account for more than 77% of world yam production as well as occupied first position in the world production of cassava, taro, citrus fruits, melon seeds and cowpeas. During the same year under review, Nigeria rank second in the world production of millet, sorghum, okra and green maize and came third in sweet potatoes, groundnuts, and papaya.

The tremendous rise in the status of food crop production in the country from the year 2002 up wards could be attributed to recent shift in government policy that favors massive food production program internally with the hope of attaining sustainable food security status and meet up with Millennium Development Goals of the country.

Constraints to Crop Production in Africa

Trends in Crop Production Nationally and Globally

Many factors have been cited as limiting the growth and development of crop production in tropical Africa. Here, we concern ourselves more with social, economic and political constraints.

1. Poverty

Poverty is indicated both by the few capital resources and the low cash incomes of African farming families. The small size of farm holdings (typically 1-5 ha.) represents very little collateral on a loan, and unless the family owns livestock there may be little prospect of raising money to buy equipment or meet emergencies.

Income from the sale of farm produce is typically inadequate to meet essential family expenses such as taxes, school fees, medicine, clothing and house hold items.

Rarely is enough left over for seed, fertilizer or chemicals, let alone for large capital items such as oxen, ploughs and water pumps. Thus, the key components of Green Revolution Technology (seed, fertilizer, pesticides) are not generally accessible.

Read Also : Classification of Crops: Botanical and Economic Classification

2. Seed

This is partly due to poor performance of the seed service agency in terms of production, quality assurance, and distribution of improved seeds.

3. Agro-chemicals

The use of herbicide, insecticide and fungicides is minimal. Farmers generally lack spraying equipment and technical skills for the timely and effective application of pesticides, which if wrongly applied pose dangers to people, crops and wider environment.

It is often not recognized that decisions concerning what, when and how much to spray are very complex, and sufficient guidance is rarely available to the farmer. Products are often sold without proper recommendations for use and threshold levels of insects’ infestation are rarely defined.

The repeated application of the same chemicals may lead to rapid development of resistance to it. For this reasons, pesticides represent a risk to small-scale farmers.

4. Labour constraints

Labour constraints are particularly serious because of the low level of adoption of animal traction in the humid zones. The presence of tsetse fly is one major reason for this but often it is poverty that prevents farmers from buying and using oxen and ploughs.

Without animal traction, the area of land that can be cultivated by one adult is about 0.5 ha. Such small scale cultivation rarely provides a surplus of food or other crops for sale- a prerequisite for economic development.

The use of oxen allows several hectares to be ploughed and perhaps weeded, opening up the possibility of marketing surpluses to fund the purchase of further equipment, new seeds and other inputs.

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Benadine Nonye is an agricultural consultant and a writer with over 12 years of professional experience in the agriculture industry. - National Diploma in Agricultural Technology - Bachelor's Degree in Agricultural Science - Master's Degree in Science Education - PhD Student in Agricultural Economics and Environmental Policy... Visit My Websites On: 1. - Your Comprehensive Practical Agricultural Knowledge and Farmer’s Guide Website! 2. - For Effective Environmental Management through Proper Waste Management and Recycling Practices! Join Me On: Twitter: @benadinenonye - Instagram: benadinenonye - LinkedIn: benadinenonye - YouTube: Agric4Profits TV and WealthInWastes TV - Pinterest: BenadineNonye4u - Facebook: BenadineNonye

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